____   ____ ______ ____   ___  ____
!!  ! |    \ /    |      T    \ /   \|    \  !!!!
!!!   |  o  Y  o  |      |  D  Y     Y  _  l  ! !!!
!!!!  |   _/|     l_   __j     |  O  |  |  |   !!!!
!!:   |  |  |  _  | |  | |    \|     |  |  |  !: :!
:!:   |  |  |  |  | |  | |  .  l     !  |  |   : ::
 ::   l__j  l__j__j l__j l__j\_j\___/l__j__j   :  :


Patron is a multi-consumer/multi-producer thread pooling library written in Common Lisp with flexibility and performance in mind. You simply create a PATRON with a job queue of fixed size, specify a fixed number of WORKER threads and start submitting your JOBs into the work queue.

While Patron is written in portable Common Lisp in mind, because of some platform specific features[1], it currently works on SBCL and CCL platforms. As a side note, Patron currently depends on bordeaux-threads library for common threading functionalities.

[1] Semaphores, missing threading features (THREAD-JOIN, WITHOUT-INTERRUPTS, etc.) in bordeaux-threads, WITH-TIMEOUT macro.


Below basic example should get you to a point where you can start creating thread pools in minutes.

(defvar *stream* *standard-output*)

(defvar *stream-lock* (patron:make-lock))

(defun safe-format (fmt &rest args)
  (patron:with-lock *stream-lock*
    (apply #'format *stream* fmt args)))

(defun thread-stats (patron)
   "Keepers: ~{~A~^ ~}~%Workers: ~{~A~^ ~}~%"
   (map 'list #'patron:thread-alive-p (patron::keepers-of patron))
   (map 'list #'patron:thread-alive-p (patron::workers-of patron))))

(let ((state (make-random-state)))
  (defun job ()
    (let ((duration (random 5 state)))
      (safe-format "  ~S => Sleeping... [~A]~%" (patron:current-thread) duration)
      (sleep duration)
      (safe-format "  ~S => Done!~%" (patron:current-thread)))))

(defun report-result (job)
  (safe-format "RESULT: JOB: ~S~%" job))

(defun patron-test ()
  (let* ((patron
           :worker-capacity 3
           :job-capacity 32
           :worker-timeout-duration 3)))
    (safe-format "Starting...~%")
    (patron:start-patron patron)
    (sleep 1.0)
    (thread-stats patron)
    (safe-format "Submitting jobs...~%")
    (loop repeat 5
          do (patron:submit-job
                   :function #'job
                   :result-report-function #'report-result)))
    (safe-format "Submitted.~%")
    (safe-format "Stopping...~%")
    (patron:stop-patron patron :wait t)
    (safe-format "Stopped.~%")
    (thread-stats patron)))

; Starting...
; Keepers: T T
; Workers: T T T
; Submitting jobs...
; Submitted.
; Stopping...
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8D21}> => Sleeping... [2]
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8F71}> => Sleeping... [2]
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040EA1D1}> => Sleeping... [3]
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8D21}> => Done!
; RESULT: JOB: #<PATRON:JOB :FUNCTION #<FUNCTION TEST::JOB> :START-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:49" :FINISH-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:51" {1004155561}>
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8D21}> => Sleeping... [3]
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8F71}> => Done!
; RESULT: JOB: #<PATRON:JOB :FUNCTION #<FUNCTION TEST::JOB> :START-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:49" :FINISH-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:51" {1004155891}>
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8F71}> => Sleeping... [2]
; 2009-04-30 14:41:52 - #<PATRON:JOB :FUNCTION #<FUNCTION TEST::JOB> :START-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:49" :CONDITION #<PATRON::TIMEOUT-CONDITION :DURATION 3 :TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:52"> {1004155BC1}>
;   #<SB-THREAD:THREAD "Anonymous" RUNNING {10040E8F71}> => Done!
; RESULT: JOB: #<PATRON:JOB :FUNCTION #<FUNCTION TEST::JOB> :START-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:51" :FINISH-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:53" {1004156231}>
; 2009-04-30 14:41:54 - #<PATRON:JOB :FUNCTION #<FUNCTION TEST::JOB> :START-TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:51" :CONDITION #<PATRON::TIMEOUT-CONDITION :DURATION 3 :TIME "2009-04-30 14:41:54"> {1004155EF1}>
; Stopped.
; Keepers: NIL NIL
; Workers: NIL NIL NIL


Before going into the syntatical details, here is a general figure about the inner workings of Patron.

  • Queue operations take action in a blocking manner and are wrapped by WITH-TIMEOUT statements.
  • There are no busy waits, synchronized access is supplied using semaphores.
  • Using a two-lock concurrent queue algorithm, consumer and producer lockings are separated from each other for performance purposes .
  • There are two keeper threads where each keeper is ensuring its partners existence and first (master) keeper ensuring the existence of specified number of worker threads.

While Patron source code is fully documented, below you'll find the documentation excerpts from the source code for exported symbols.

[Condition] timeout-condition (error-condition)
  [Slot] time - Time condition instance is created.
  [Slot] duration - Elapsed duration before condition is raised.

Condition thrown when the duration specified in the WITH-TIMEOUT is exceeded. (TIME slot is inherited from ERROR-CONDITION.)

[Function] default-error-report (condition)

Default function for reporting errors.

[Class] thread ()
  [Slot] id - Implementation dependent thread identifier.
  [Slot] function - Function executed by current thread.

[Function] make-lock ()

[Macro] with-lock (lock &body body)

[Function] thread-start (thread)

[Function] current-thread ()

[Function] thread-alive-p (thread)

[Function] thread-interrupt (thread function)

[Function] thread-join (thread)

[Macro] without-interrupts (&body body)

[Class] job ()
  [Slot] function - Function will be called to start the execution.
  [Slot] result-report-function - Function will be called to report the result.
  [Slot] error-report-function - Function will be called to report an error.
  [Slot] submit-time - Job queue entrance time.
  [Slot] start-time - Job execution start time.
  [Slot] finish-time - Job execution finish time.
  [Slot] condition - Signaled condition in case of a failure.
  [Slot] result - Job result in case of no failure.

[Class] patron ()
  [Slot] error-report-function - Will get called for management related
         errors -- e.g when found a dead worker, keeper, etc.
  [Slot] job-capacity - Upper limit on the job queue size.
  [Slot] worker-capacity - Number of serving `WORKER's.
  [Slot] worker-timeout-duration - Time limit on the work processing duration.
  [Slot] keeper-timeout-duration - Wait period for keepers.

[Function] submit-job (patron job)

Submit given JOB into the job queue of PATRON. Function works in a blocking manner and returns inserted JOB, or throws a TIMEOUT-CONDITION.

[Function] worker-stats (patron)

Returns a property list of minimum, maximum, and average statistics of N-FAILURES, FAIL-DURATION, BUSY-DURATION, and IDLE-DURATION slots among workers. Function blocks job queue while gathering statistics.

[Function] start-patron (patron)

After switching STATE to :ACTIVE, starts WORKERSs and KEEPERs in order.

[Function] stop-patron (patron &key wait kill)

After switching STATE to :INACTIVE, stops KEEPERs and WORKERs in order. For related effects of keyword arguments see documentation of STOP-KEEPERS and STOP-WORKERS functions.

Volkan YAZICI <>
library, thread