An implementation of Petri nets
A Common Lisp implementation of Petri nets.
This README is beta-quality. It will be fixed and extended one day.
The original Petri net notation mentions transitions and places. Because the
term "place" already has a defined meaning in Common Lisp, I have decided to
instead use the term "bag" in this library. The implementations of bags I use is
PHOE-TOOLBOX/BAG and all bags may be
queried using the interface defined in that system:
Each Petri net is a funcallable object and invoking a Petri net happens via funcalling it.
The keyword arguments to a Petri net are:
:COMPRESS- states whether the bags should be compressed after each Petri
:IGNORE-ERRORS- states whether all errors should be silently ignored during
Petri net execution. This option is useful if error handling happens inside transition functions via programmer code.
A Petri net returns two values upon being funcalled: the primary return value is
itself, and the secondary value is a boolean stating whether any errors have
occurred during the execution of the Petri net. (This value is only useful if
:IGNORE-ERRORS has been set.)
Petri nets are immutable after their creation. Their only mutable parts are the bag objects referenced by them.
Each transition in the Petri net is specified by a list of input bag specs, a list of output bag specs, and a callback function. Each bag spec A single bag spec may be one of the following:
- a symbol, denoting a bag with the default count 1,
- a list in form of
(symbol count), denoting a bag with name
In case of input bags, the count denotes how many tokens must be present in a bag for the transition to fire. When a transition fires, these tokens are automatically removed from the bag and passed to the callback by means of an input hash table, where the keys are bag names and values are lists of tokens .
In case of output bags, the count denotes how many tokens must be pushed by the callback into the output hash table under the key being the bag's hash table. If the number of tokens pushed by the transition does not match the spec, an execution-time error is signaled.
A special kind of an input bag spec is a list in form of
(symbol !), where
is any symbol with name
"!". This spec denotes an inhibitor edge, meaning that
the bag with the name
symbol must be empty in order for the transition to
A special kind of an output bag spec is a list in form of
(symbol *), where
* is any symbol with name
"*". This spec denotes a wildcard edge, meaning
that the transition may push any amount of tokens to the bag with the name
Each callback is a function that must accept a pair of arguments: an input hash table and an output hash table. The input hash table provides input for the callback and the output hash table is used for sending output. The return value of the callback is ignored.
The input hash table is fresh may freely be mutated by the callback.
PETRI pre-creates the keys in output hash table, so the callback is allowed to
access the keys of that hash table in order to determine how to behave. In
particular, the callback is allowed to do nothing in order to be considered
PETRI solves the nondeterminism of Petri nets by means of random selection.
Each time the code searches for an available transition, all transitions are
searched in random order. Each time a token is removed from a bag, it is removed
Execution of a Petri net stops when no more transitions are available to fire. In particular, this means that calling a Petri net may loop indefinitely.
This ASDF system defines the base code implementing Petri nets.
A Petri net (an instance of class
PETRI-NET) may be created in two ways: using
functional syntax (via the
MAKE-PETRI-NET function) and using declarative
syntax (via the
PETRI-NET macro.) An individual bag of a Petri net may be
accessed using the
BAGS-OF function, which accepts a Petri net and the name of
the bag in question. A list of all bag names may be accessed via
Condition types defined by this system are
PETRI-NET-ERROR, which is the
supertype of all errors related to Petri nets, and
which is a
PETRI-NET-ERROR that is also a
SIMPLE-ERROR. The convenience
PETRI-NET-ERROR exists for signaling this error.
This ASDF system contains code for a multithreaded implementation of Petri net
that uses raw
BORDEAUX-THREADS for execution. Each transition is executed in a
separate thread as soon as enough tokens are available for it to fire.
Instances of threaded Petri nets (instances of class
be created using the
THREADED-PETRI-NET macro or the
Errors cause the transition to return and are propagated to the thread calling
the Petri net along with the backtrace, wrapped in a condition of type
This ASDF system contains code for integrating
Loading this system defines methods on the generic functions in
GRAPH-OBJECT protocol that allow Petri nets to be graphed.
The only symbol exported by this package is
DISPLAY-GRAPH, a convenience
function which accepts a Petri net, generates a PNG graph in a temporary
directory and automatically executes it using
This ASDF system contains tests for
You do not need to explicitly load this system to run the tests; instead, use
See the file test.lisp for working examples in form of unit tests. Each working test is run in four manners: using functional and declarative syntax, and using single-threaded and multithreaded implementations.
;; Define the callback function for the transition. (flet ((callback (input output) (push (- (pop (gethash 'foo input))) (gethash 'bar output)))) ;; Create the petri net object. (let ((petri-net (make-petri-net ;; Define bags FOO and BAR. '(foo bar) ;; Define a single transition which takes one token from FOO ;; and outputs one token to BAR. `((((foo 1)) ((bar 1)) ,#'callback))))) ;; Populate bag FOO with data. (dolist (i '(1 2 3)) (bag-insert (bag-of petri-net 'foo) i)) ;; Funcall the Petri net. (funcall petri-net) ;; Access the contents of bag BAR. (bag-contents (bag-of petri-net 'bar)))) ;; => #(-1 -3 -2)
Due to the non-determinism of the Petri net, the output vector may have its elements in any order.
;; Define the callback functions for the transition: one which negates its ;; arguments and the other which passes them without any change. (flet ((callback-negation (input output) (push (- (pop (gethash 'foo input))) (gethash 'bar output))) (callback-identity (input output) (push (pop (gethash 'foo input)) (gethash 'bar output)))) ;; Create the petri net object. (let ((petri-net (make-petri-net ;; Define bags FOO and BAR. '(foo bar) ;; Define two transitions: ;; * one that takes one token from FOO, outputs one token to ;; BAR, and calls CALLBACK-IDENTITY, ;; * one that takes one token from FOO, outputs one token to ;; BAR, and calls CALLBACK-NEGATION. `((((foo 1)) ((bar 1)) ,#'callback-negation) (((foo 1)) ((bar 1)) ,#'callback-identity))))) ;; Populate bag FOO with data. (dolist (i '(1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0)) (bag-insert (bag-of petri-net 'foo) i)) ;; Funcall the Petri net. (funcall petri-net) ;; Access the contents of bag BAR. (bag-contents (bag-of petri-net 'bar)))) ;; => #(-1 -9 -3 8 -4 5 0 6 -2 -7) ;; => #(-5 8 0 2 -4 -9 -3 -1 -7 -6) ;; => #(-4 -8 -1 -2 -5 -7 -6 3 0 9) ;; => ...
Due to the non-determinism of the Petri net, the output vector may have its elements in any order, and any element might have been negated.
A more complex Petri net may be visualized using the
(threaded-petri-net () (update-digo-data-p -> #'dl-digo-data -> new-digo-data-p) (new-digo-data-p old-digo-data-p -> #'save-digo-data) (credentials -> #'login -> cookie-jars -> #'dl-account -> accounts (accounts-furres *)) (accounts-furres (old-digo-data-p !) -> #'dl-furre -> furres (furres-costumes *) (furres-portraits *) (furres-specitags *) furres-images) (furres-costumes -> #'dl-costume -> costumes) (furres-portraits -> #'dl-portrait -> portraits) (furres-specitags -> #'dl-specitag -> specitags) (furres-images -> #'dl-image-list -> (image-metadata *)) (image-metadata -> #'dl-image -> images))
In the above example, the programmer's intent was to store input in the
CREDENTIALS bag read and output from bags
SPECITAGS when the Petri net finishes executing.
Each transition accepts one token from the input bag and store either one token
into each output bag (edges without labels) or an arbitrary number of tokens
into each output bag (edges labeled with
Additionally, an optional constraint is placed, in which
DL-FURRE may not
DL-DIGO-DATA finishes executing. This is achieved via an extra
OLD-DIGO-DATA-P, and an inhibitor edge leading from it. If this
constraint is meant to be activated, then a pair of arbitrary tokens should be
This system is currently not designed to be extensible. See the class
definitions and generic functions defined in the file
petri.lisp for details
on the internal working of the system.
Copyright © 2018 Michał "phoe" Herda.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
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