An extensible iteration macro library.

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Yukari Hafner <>


Yukari Hafner <>



About For

For is a library for an extensible iteration macro. It allows you to write concise looping constructs similar to loop and iterate. Unlike loop however it is extensible and sensible, and unlike iterate it does not require code-walking and is easier to extend.

How To

Load For using ASDF or Quicklisp.

(ql:quickload :for)

Now we can use the for macro to do iteration. Most of the constructs you know from loop are available with the same name in For.

(for:for ((li in (list 1 2 3 4))
          (vi across #(a b c d)))
  (format T "~&~a ~a" li vi))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop for li in (list 1 2 3 4)
      for vi across #(a b c d)
      do (format T "~&~a ~a" li vi))

Unlike loop and iterate, for makes a distinction between "bindings" and body forms. Body forms can also contain clauses:

(for:for ((li in (list 1 2 3 4)))
  (thereis (evenp li)))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop for li in (list 1 2 3 4)
      thereis (evenp li))

Naturally, there's also accumulation bindings:

(for:for ((randoms collecting (random 10)))
  (until (= 10 (length randoms))))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop collect (random 10) into randoms
      until (= 10 (length randoms)))

You might realise that the above is a rather inefficient way of writing the loop. Instead we can also use the repeat binding:

(for:for ((i repeat 10)
          (randoms collecting (random 10))))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop repeat 10
      collect (random 10))

If we have multiple bindings or clauses that might have useful values to return, all of them are returned:

(for:for ((a over *random-state* :limit 10)
          (b collect a))
  (thereis (evenp a)))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop with iterator = (for-iterator:make-iterator *random-state* :limit 10)
      while (for-iterator:has-more iterator)
      for a = (for-iterator:next iterator)
      collect a into b
      when (evenp a)
      return (values T b))

In order for short-circuiting clauses to have highest priority on values, clause-values are always returned first followed by binding values. Otherwise the order follows the declaration order of the respective clauses/bindings. Note that clauses must appear as a "top-level" form within the for body and cannot appear as the result of a macroexpansion.

For also features a generic iterator construct that allows you to iterate over a multitude of different data types without having to do a case-distinction by yourself. We already saw this with the over *random-state* binding from the previous example.

(for:for ((a over '(1 2 3))
          (b over #(a b c))
          (c over (for:for ((table as (make-hash-table))) 
                    (setf (gethash (random 10) table) (random 10)) (repeat 3)))
          (d over *package*)
          (e over *random-state*)
          (f over (directory (merge-pathnames "*.*" (user-homedir-pathname))))
          (g over (make-string-input-stream "Hi!")))
  (print (list a b c d e f g)))

over will also automatically support iterating over additional sequence types if your implementation supports the extensible sequences protocol. Note that the over iterator construct can be slower than a tailored iteration construct.

Some iterators also support updating the current element. If you require doing so, you can use the updating binding.

(for:for ((list as (list 1 2 3 4 5))
          (item updating list))
  (setf item (expt item item)))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop with list = (list 1 2 3 4 5)
      with iterator = (for-iterator:make-iterator list)
      while (for-iterator:has-more iterator)
      do (for-iterator:next iterator)
         (symbol-macrolet ((item (for-iterator:current iterator)))
           (setf item (expt item item)))
      finally (return list))

Some of the bindings also support destructuring the current item by a destructuring-lambda-list.

(for:for (((type &key object limit) in '((counter :limit 5)
                                         (package :object *package*))))
  (format T "~&Type: ~a~@[ Object: ~a~]~@[ Limit: ~a~]" type object limit))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop for list in '((counter :limit 5)
                    (package :object *package*))
      do (destructuring-bind (type &key object limit) list
           (format T "~&Type: ~a~@[ Object: ~a~]~@[ Limit: ~a~]" type object limit)))

You can check a binding's or clause's documentation with (documentation 'in 'for:binding) which will tell you whether it supports destructuring through update.

Sometimes you may want to iterate over multiple things in sequence rather than in parallel. For this you can use the being binding, which allows you to pass a list of sub-bindings to sequentially use.

(for:for (((k v) being
           (in '((駅 station) (出口 exit) (特急 express-train)))
           (across #((勉強 studying) (宿題 home-work) (授業 lesson) (試験 exam)))))
  (format T "~&~a: ~a" k v))

In loop this might look as follows:

(progn (loop for (k v) in '((駅 station) (出口 exit) (特急 express-train))
             do (format T "~&~a: ~a" k v))
       (loop for (k v) across #((勉強 studying) (宿題 home-work) (授業 lesson) (試験 exam))
             do (format T "~&~a: ~a" k v)))

If a binding should only be updated based on a condition, there's the when and unless bindings that defer based on a test.

(for:for ((random = (random 10))
          (list when (evenp random) collect random))
  (until (= 10 (length list))))

In loop this might look as follows:

(loop with list = ()
      for random = (random 10)
      when (evenp random)
      do (push random list)
      until (= 10 (length list))
      finally (return (nreverse list)))

The following bindings are included in the for-minimal package:

  • =
  • across
  • appending / append
  • as
  • being
  • collecting / collect
  • counting / count
  • from
  • in
  • lines-of
  • maximizing / maximize
  • minimizing / minimize
  • nconcing / nconc
  • on
  • over
  • ranging / range
  • reducing / reduce
  • repeating / repeat
  • summing / sum
  • symbols
  • table-keys
  • table-pairs
  • table-values
  • unless
  • updating / update
  • when

The following clauses are included in the for-minimal package:

  • always
  • never
  • returning
  • thereis
  • until
  • while

Iterator classes for the following types is included in the for-iterator package:

  • list
  • vector
  • array
  • stream
  • pathname
  • random-state
  • package
  • hash-table each item is a list of key and value.

Extending FOR

Both bindings and clauses are defined in terms of functions that return three values:

  1. A surrounding form
    Surrounding forms will be wrapped around the rest of the expanded for by appending the rest to it. This happens through with-interleaving.
  2. A loop body form
    The body form is put inside the loop where it will be evaluated once per iteration.
  3. A return value form
    The return value form is evaluated on loop end. The position within the returned values is dependent on the clauses and bindings present during expansion. If not provided, no return value is generated. Note that this is distinct from having NIL as a third value.

Passed to the functions are the literal arguments used in the binding or clause expression. In that way, a clause/binding function must work just like a macro would.


The most primitive way to define bindings is through the define-direct-binding macro. This defines a verbatim binding function as described above. Note that the loop body forms of bindings will always be evaluated before the proper for body.

In most cases you will want the arguments that are passed to the binding to be evaluated only once, before the loop starts properly. The define-value-binding macro will help you with that. Each argument you specify will be bound to a gensym within the definition body, and is automatically expanded to a variable with the value that is used in the binding. &aux arguments receive special treatment as they are expanded like regular variables and thus allow you to easily define helper variables necessary during iteration.

Let's look at an example binding definition:

(define-value-binding across (var vector &aux (i -1) (length (length vector)))
  `(if (= ,length (incf ,i))
       (update ,var (aref ,vector ,i))))

Expanding a simple call (for ((a across vec))) results in this expansion (after cleaning it up a little):

       (#:I -1)
       (A NIL))
    (IF (= #:LENGTH (INCF #:I))
        (UPDATE A (AREF #:VECTOR #:I))))

As you can see, our only argument, vector got expanded into a gensym-ed variable that is bound to the result of the vector argument. Our auxiliary variables received similar treatment. Note that references to other arguments automatically get translated to their proper gensyms.

In some cases however you'd like to re-evaluate an argument each iteration. To get this behaviour, you can use define-form-binding. Here's a simple example:

 (define-form-binding = (var form)
   `(update ,var ,form))

Expanding a simple call (for ((a = (* 2 2)))) presents us with:

 (LET* ((A NIL))
     (UPDATE A (* 2 2)))

Usually you will want form bindings if you want to accumulate the results of it over time in some manner. In that case you usually also want to return the result of the accumulation once you're done. define-accumulation-binding does exactly that. One note about form bindings is that the auxiliary variables still act the same as in the value bindings-- they automatically get expanded to bindings in the resulting loop construct.

Let's look at an example that shows both:

(define-accumulation-binding collecting (var form &aux (head (cons NIL NIL)) (tail head))
  `(setf ,tail (setf (cdr ,tail) (cons ,form NIL))
         ,var (cdr ,head)))

Expanding (for ((a collecting 2))) results in:

         A (CDR #:HEAD))

As before, the auxiliary arguments got expanded to variable bindings with their respective default values.

Finally we have two variants of form and value bindings, define-form-symbol-macro-binding and define-value-symbol-macro-binding. The difference to the previous definition forms here is that the var is not bound as a variable, but instead as a symbol macro. Its default value is the symbol-macro expansion. This is useful if you want to provide an updateable place as the iteration var, as is the case with the updating binding.


Clauses work the exact same as bindings in terms of the base function, which you can define with define-direct-clause. Unlike bindings however, clauses simply get the body of their call as arguments, without an iteration var.

In order to ease things a bit there is also define-simple-clause which provides the same handling for arguments as define-form-binding does.

One thing to note is that the surrounding forms of clauses always appear deeper than those of bindings and that the result value forms of clauses always appear before those of bindings. The loop body form of a clause appears at the exact position in the body where the clause expression previously appeared.


In order to provide the generic over iteration construct, For includes a protocol to define iterators. In order for an iterator to work, it has to subclass iterator and provide three methods: make-iterator, has-more, and next. The first is merely there so that we can dispatch on the type of object we'd like to iterate over and construct an appropriate iterator for it. The second should return a generalised boolean that tells us whether we can safely call next. Finally, next itself advances the iterator and returns a new element. If sensible and possible, a method on (setf current) can also be provided to allow updating the current element to a new value. In order to speed up iteration in most cases, it's also useful to provide a step-functions method.

Let's look at the list iterator as an example:

(defclass list-iterator (iterator)

(defmethod initialize-instance :after ((iterator list-iterator) &key object)
  (setf (object iterator) (cons NIL object)))

(defmethod has-more ((iterator list-iterator))
  (cdr (object iterator)))

(defmethod next ((iterator list-iterator))
  (setf (object iterator) (cdr (object iterator)))
  (car (object iterator)))

(defmethod (setf current) (value (iterator list-iterator))
  (setf (car (object iterator)) value))
(defmethod step-functions ((iterator list-iterator))
  (let ((list (object iterator)))
     (lambda ()
       (setf list (cdr list))
       (car list))
     (lambda ()
       (cdr list))
     (lambda (value)
       (setf (car list) value))
     (lambda ()))))

(defmethod make-iterator ((list list) &key)
  (make-instance 'list-iterator :object list))

First we subclass iterator. Next we define an initialize method in order to prepend a cons to the list. We do this so that we know the next element will always be in the cadr of the object and we can still set the car of the current cons cell to update it. The has-more test is implemented accordingly. On next we then simply pop off the first cons and return our new current element. The (setf current) can then just update the car of the object. The step-functions method then implements most of that logic again inside closures that avoid any CLOS dispatch. Finally we need a make-iterator method to dispatch on lists.

Dependencies (3)

  • documentation-utils
  • form-fiddle
  • lambda-fiddle

Dependents (2)

  • GitHub
  • Quicklisp