try

2022-04-01

Try is a test framework.

Upstream URL

github.com/melisgl/try

Author

Gábor Melis

License

MIT, see COPYING.
README
# Try Manual ###### \[in package TRY\] ## TRY ASDF System - Version: 0.0.1 - Description: Try is a test framework. - Long Description: Try is what we get if we make tests functions and build a test framework on top of the condition system as [Stefil](https://common-lisp.net/project/stefil/index-old.shtml) did but also address the issue of rerunning and replaying, make the IS check more capable, use the types of the condition hierarchy to parameterize what to debug, print, rerun, and finally document the whole thing. - Licence: MIT, see COPYING. - Author: Gábor Melis - Mailto: [mega@retes.hu](mailto:mega@retes.hu) - Homepage: [http://melisgl.github.io/try](http://melisgl.github.io/try) - Bug tracker: [https://github.com/melisgl/try/issues](https://github.com/melisgl/try/issues) - Source control: [GIT](https://github.com/melisgl/try.git) ## Links Here is the [official repository](https://github.com/melisgl/try) and the [HTML documentation](http://melisgl.github.io/mgl-pax-world/try-manual.html) for the latest version. ## Tutorial Try is a library for unit testing with equal support for interactive and non-interactive workflows. Tests are functions, and almost everything else is a condition, whose types feature prominently in parameterization. ##### Looking for Truth @TRY/IS is a replacement for CL:ASSERT, that can capture values of subforms to provide context to failures: ```common-lisp (is (= (1+ 5) 0)) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (= #1=(1+ 5) 0)) .. where .. #1# = 6 ``` This is a PAX transcript, output is prefixed with `..` and the unreadable return value with `==>`. Note the `#N#` syntax due to *PRINT-CIRCLE*. ##### Checking Multiple Values IS automatically captures values of arguments to functions like `1+` in the above example. Values of other interesting subforms can be explicitly captured. IS supports capturing multiple values and can be taught how to deal with macros. The combination of these features allows MATCH-VALUES to be implementable as tiny extension: ```common-lisp (is (match-values (values (1+ 5) "sdf") (= * 0) (string= * "sdf"))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS .. (MATCH-VALUES #1=(VALUES (1+ 5) #2="sdf") .. (= * 0) .. (STRING= * "sdf"))) .. where .. #1# == 6 .. #2# ``` In the body of MATCH-VALUES, `*` is bound to successive return values of some form, here `(VALUES (1+ 5) "sdf")`. MATCH-VALUES comes with an automatic rewrite rule that captures the values of this form, which are printed above as `#1# == 6 #2#`. IS is flexible enough that all other checks (SIGNALS, SIGNALS-NOT, INVOKES-DEBUGGER, INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT, FAILS, and IN-TIME are built on top of it. ##### Writing Tests Beyond a fancy ASSERT, Try provides tests, which are Lisp functions that record their execution in TRIAL objects. Let's define a test and run it: ```common-lisp (deftest should-work () (is t)) (should-work) .. SHOULD-WORK ; TRIAL-START .. ⋅ (IS T) ; EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS .. ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 ; EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS .. ==> #<TRIAL (SHOULD-WORK) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` Try is driven by conditions, and the comments to the right give the type of the condition that is printed on that line. The `⋅` character marks successes. We could have run our test with `(TRY 'SHOULD-WORK)`, as well, which does pretty much the same thing except it defaults to never entering the debugger, whereas calling a test function directly enters the debugger on events whose type matches the type in the variable *DEBUG*. ```common-lisp (try 'should-work) .. SHOULD-WORK .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (SHOULD-WORK) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` ##### Test Suites Test suites are just tests which call other tests. ```common-lisp (deftest my-suite () (should-work) (is (= (foo) 5))) (defun foo () 4) (try 'my-suite) .. MY-SUITE ; TRIAL-START .. SHOULD-WORK ; TRIAL-START .. ⋅ (IS T) ; EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS .. ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 ; EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS .. ⊠ (IS (= #1=(FOO) 5)) ; UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE .. where .. #1# = 4 .. ⊠ MY-SUITE ⊠1 ⋅1 ; UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-SUITE) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊠1 ⋅1> ``` `⊠` marks UNEXPECTED-FAILUREs. Note how the failure of `(IS (= (FOO) 5))` caused `MY-SUITE` to fail as well. ##### Filtering Output To focus on the important bits, we can print only the UNEXPECTED events: ```common-lisp (try 'my-suite :print 'unexpected) .. MY-SUITE .. ⊠ (IS (= #1=(FOO) 5)) .. where .. #1# = 4 .. ⊠ MY-SUITE ⊠1 ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-SUITE) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊠1 ⋅1> ``` Note that `SHOULD-WORK` is still run, and its check's success is counted as evidenced by`⋅1`. The above effect can also be achieved without running the tests again with REPLAY-EVENTS. ##### Debugging Let's figure out what went wrong: ``` (my-suite) ;;; Here the debugger is invoked: UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: (IS (= #1=(FOO) 5)) where #1# = 4 Restarts: 0: [RECORD-EVENT] Record the event and continue. 1: [FORCE-EXPECTED-SUCCESS] Change outcome to TRY:EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS. 2: [FORCE-UNEXPECTED-SUCCESS] Change outcome to TRY:UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS. 3: [FORCE-EXPECTED-FAILURE] Change outcome to TRY:EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE. 4: [ABORT-CHECK] Change outcome to TRY:RESULT-ABORT*. 5: [SKIP-CHECK] Change outcome to TRY:RESULT-SKIP. 6: [RETRY-CHECK] Retry check. 7: [ABORT-TRIAL] Record the event and abort trial TRY::MY-SUITE. 8: [SKIP-TRIAL] Record the event and skip trial TRY::MY-SUITE. 9: [RETRY-TRIAL] Record the event and retry trial TRY::MY-SUITE. 10: [SET-TRY-DEBUG] Supply a new value for :DEBUG of TRY:TRY. 11: [RETRY] Retry SLIME interactive evaluation request. ``` In the [SLIME](https://common-lisp.net/project/slime/doc/html/) debugger, we press `v` on the frame of the call to `MY-SUITE` to navigate to its definition, realize what the problem is and fix `FOO`: ```common-lisp (defun foo () 5) ``` Now, we select the `RETRY-TRIAL` restart, and on the retry `MY-SUITE` passes. The full output is: ``` MY-SUITE SHOULD-WORK ⋅ (IS T) ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 WARNING: redefining TRY::FOO in DEFUN ⊠ (IS (= #1=(FOO) 5)) where #1# = 4 MY-SUITE retry #1 SHOULD-WORK ⋅ (IS T) ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 ⋅ (IS (= (FOO) 5)) ⋅ MY-SUITE ⋅2 ``` ##### Rerunning Stuff Instead of working interactively, one can fix the failing test and rerun it. Now, let's fix `MY-SUITE` and rerun it: ```common-lisp (deftest my-suite () (should-work) (is nil)) (try 'my-suite) .. MY-SUITE .. SHOULD-WORK .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ SHOULD-WORK ⋅1 .. ⊠ (IS NIL) .. ⊠ MY-SUITE ⊠1 ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-SUITE) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊠1 ⋅1> (deftest my-suite () (should-work) (is t)) (try !) .. MY-SUITE .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ MY-SUITE ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-SUITE) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.004s ⋅1> ``` Here, `!` refers to the most recent TRIAL returned by TRY. When a trial is passed to TRY or is `FUNCALL`ed, trials in it which match the type in TRY's RERUN argument are rerun (here, UNEXPECTED by default). `SHOULD-WORK` and its check are `EXPECTED-SUCCESS`es, hence they don't match UNEXPECTED and are not rerun. ##### Conditional Execution Conditional execution can be achieved simply testing the TRIAL object returned by @TRY/TESTS. ``` (deftest my-suite () (when (passedp (should-work)) (is t :msg "a test that depends on SHOULD-WORK") (when (is nil) (is nil :msg "never run")))) ``` ##### Skipping ```common-lisp (deftest my-suite () (with-skip ((not (server-available-p))) (test-server))) (deftest test-server () (is t)) (defun server-available-p () nil) (my-suite) ==> #<TRIAL (MY-SUITE) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.012s> ``` In the above, `TEST-SERVER` was skipped. No checks were made, no errors happened, so nothing was printed. ##### Expecting Outcomes ```common-lisp (deftest known-broken () (with-failure-expected (t) (is nil))) (known-broken) .. KNOWN-BROKEN .. × (IS NIL) .. ⋅ KNOWN-BROKEN ×1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (KNOWN-BROKEN) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ×1> ``` `×` marks `EXPECTED-SUCCESS`es. `(WITH-SKIP (T) ...)` makes all checks successes and failures EXPECTED, which are counted in their own *CATEGORIES* by default but don't make the enclosing tests to fail. Also see WITH-EXPECTED-OUTCOME. ##### Running Tests on Definition With *RUN-DEFTEST-WHEN*, one can run test on definition. To run tests on evaluation, as in SLIME `C-M-x`, `slime-eval-defun`: ```common-lisp (setq *run-deftest-when* :execute) (deftest some-test () (is t)) .. SOME-TEST .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ SOME-TEST ⋅1 .. => SOME-TEST (setq *run-deftest-when* nil) ``` ##### Fixtures There is no direct support for fixtures in Try. One can easily write macros like the following. ``` (defvar *server* nil) (defmacro with-xxx (&body body) `(flet ((,with-xxx-body () ,@body)) (if *server* (with-xxx-body) (with-server (make-expensive-server) (with-xxx-body))))) ``` Plus, with support for selectively @TRY/RERUN, the need for fixtures is lessened. ##### Packages The suggested way of writing tests is to call test functions explicitly: ``` (defpackage :some-test-package (:use #:common-lisp #:try)) (in-package :some-test-package) (deftest test-all () (test-this) (test-that)) (deftest test-this () (test-this/more)) (deftest test-this/more () (is t)) (deftest test-that () (is t)) (deftest not-called () (is t)) (defun test () (warn-on-tests-not-run ((find-package :some-test-package)) (try 'test-all))) (test) .. TEST-ALL .. TEST-THIS .. TEST-THIS/MORE .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ TEST-THIS/MORE ⋅1 .. ⋅ TEST-THIS ⋅1 .. TEST-THAT .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ TEST-THAT ⋅1 .. ⋅ TEST-ALL ⋅2 .. WARNING: Test NOT-CALLED not run. ==> #<TRIAL (TEST-ALL) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.012s ⋅2> ``` Note how the TEST function uses WARN-ON-TESTS-NOT-RUN to catch any tests defined in `SOME-TEST-PACKAGE` that were not run. Tests can be deleted by FMAKUNBOUND, UNINTERN, or by redefining the function with DEFUN. Tests defined in a given package can be listed with LIST-PACKAGE-TESTS. This style allows higher level tests to establish the dynamic environment necessary for lower level tests. ## Events Try is built around events implemented as CONDITIONs. Matching the types of events to *DEBUG*, *COUNT*, *COLLECT*, *RERUN*, *PRINT*, and *DESCRIBE* is what gives Try its flexibility. ### Middle Layer of Events The event hierarchy is fairly involved, so let's start in the middle. The condition EVENT has 4 disjoint subclasses: - TRIAL-START, which corresponds to the entry to a test (see @TRY/TESTS), - VERDICT, the OUTCOME of a TRIAL, - RESULT, the OUTCOME of a check (see @TRY/CHECKS), and - ERROR\*, an unexpected CL:ERROR or unadorned @NON-LOCAL-EXIT. ```common-lisp (let (;; We don't want to debug nor print a backtrace for the error below. (*debug* nil) (*describe* nil)) ;; signals TRIAL-START / VERDICT-ABORT* on entry / exit (with-test (demo) ;; signals EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS (is t) ;; signals UNHANDLED-ERROR with a nested CL:ERROR (error "xxx"))) .. DEMO ; TRIAL-START .. ⋅ (IS T) ; EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS (⋅) .. ⊟ "xxx" (SIMPLE-ERROR) ; UNHANDLED-ERROR (⊟) .. ⊟ DEMO ⊟1 ⋅1 ; VERDICT-ABORT* (⊟) .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (DEMO)) ABORT* 0.004s ⊟1 ⋅1> ``` ### Concrete Events The non-abstract condition classes of events that are actually signalled are called concrete. TRIAL-START is a concrete event class. RESULTs and VERDICTs have six concrete subclasses: - EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS, EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE, RESULT-SKIP, RESULT-ABORT\* - EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS, UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS, EXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE, UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE, VERDICT-SKIP, VERDICT-ABORT\* ERROR\* is an abstract class with two concrete subclasses: - UNHANDLED-ERROR, signalled when a CL:ERROR reaches the handler set up by DEFTEST or WITH-TEST, or when the debugger is invoked. - NLX, signalled when no error was detected by the handler, but the trial finishes with a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT. These are the 15 concrete event classes. ### Event Glue These condition classes group various bits of the @TRY/CONCRETE-EVENTS and the @TRY/MIDDLE-LAYER-OF-EVENTS for ease of reference. Concrete event classes except TRIAL-START are subclasses of hyphen-separated words in their name. For example, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE inherits from UNEXPECTED, RESULT, and FAILURE, so it matches types such as UNEXPECTED or `(AND UNEXPECTED RESULT)`. - [condition] EVENT Common abstract superclass of all events in Try. - [condition] EXPECTED EVENT Concrete condition classes with EXPECTED in their name are subclasses of EXPECTED. SKIP is also a subclass of EXPECTED. - [condition] UNEXPECTED EVENT Concrete condition classes with UNEXPECTED in their name are subclasses of UNEXPECTED. ABORT\* is also a subclass of UNEXPECTED. - [condition] SUCCESS EVENT See @TRY/CHECKS and @TRY/TRIAL-VERDICTS for how SUCCESS or FAILURE is decided. - [condition] FAILURE EVENT See SUCCESS. - [condition] DISMISSAL EVENT The third possibility after SUCCESS and FAILURE. Either SKIP or ABORT\*. - [condition] ABORT* UNEXPECTED `RESULT-ABORT*`, `VERDICT-ABORT*` or ERROR\*. - [condition] SKIP EXPECTED DISMISSAL RESULT-SKIP or VERDICT-SKIP. - [condition] LEAF EVENT RESULT or ERROR\*. - [type] EXPECTED-SUCCESS A shorthand for `(AND EXPECTED SUCCESS)`. - [type] UNEXPECTED-SUCCESS A shorthand for `(AND UNEXPECTED SUCCESS)`. - [type] EXPECTED-FAILURE A shorthand for `(AND EXPECTED FAILURE)`. - [type] UNEXPECTED-FAILURE A shorthand for `(AND UNEXPECTED FAILURE)`. - [type] PASS An OUTCOME that's not an ABORT\* or an UNEXPECTED FAILURE. - [type] FAIL An ABORT\* or an UNEXPECTED FAILURE. ### Printing Events - [variable] *EVENT-PRINT-BINDINGS* ((\*PRINT-CIRCLE\* T)) EVENTs are conditions signalled in code that may change printer variables such as *PRINT-CIRCLE*, *PRINT-LENGTH*, etc. To control how events are printed, the list of variable bindings in *EVENT-PRINT-BINDINGS* is established whenever an EVENT is printed as if with: ``` (progv (mapcar #'first *event-print-bindings*) (mapcar #'second *event-print-bindings*) ...) ``` The default value ensures that shared structure is recognized (see @TRY/CAPTURES). If the `#N#` syntax feels cumbersome, then change this variable. ### Event Restarts Only RECORD-EVENT is applicable to all EVENTs. See @TRY/CHECK-RESTARTS, @TRY/TRIAL-RESTARTS for more. - [function] RECORD-EVENT &OPTIONAL CONDITION This restart is always the first restart available when an EVENT is signalled running under TRY (i.e. there is a CURRENT-TRIAL). TRY always invokes RECORD-EVENT when handling events. ### Outcomes - [condition] OUTCOME EVENT An OUTCOME is the resolution of either a TRIAL or a check (see @TRY/CHECKS), corresponding to subclasses VERDICT and RESULT. - [macro] WITH-EXPECTED-OUTCOME (EXPECTED-TYPE) &BODY BODY When an OUTCOME is to be signalled, EXPECTED-TYPE determines whether it's going to be EXPECTED. The concrete OUTCOME classes are `{EXPECTED,UNEXPECTED}-{RESULT,VERDICT}-{SUCCESS,FAILURE}` (see @TRY/EVENTS), of which RESULT or VERDICT and SUCCESS or FAILURE are already known. If a RESULT FAILURE is to be signalled, then the moral equivalent of `(SUBTYPEP '(AND RESULT FAILURE) EXPECTED-TYPE)` is evaluated and depending on whether it's true, EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE or UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE is signalled. By default, SUCCESS is expected. The following example shows how to expect both SUCCESS and FAILURE for RESULTs, while requiring VERDICTs to succeed: ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil)) (with-expected-outcome ('(or result (and verdict success))) (with-test (t1) (is nil)))) .. T1 .. × (IS NIL) .. ⋅ T1 ×1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T1)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ×1> ``` This is equivalent to `(WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED () ...)`. To make result failures expected but result successes unexpected: ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil)) (with-expected-outcome ('(or (and result failure) (and verdict success))) (with-test (t1) (is t) (is nil)))) .. T1 .. ⊡ (IS T) .. × (IS NIL) .. ⋅ T1 ⊡1 ×1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T1)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⊡1 ×1> ``` This is equivalent to `(WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED ('FAILURE) ...)`. The final example leaves result failures unexpected but makes both verdict successes and failures expected: ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil)) (with-expected-outcome ('(or (and result success) verdict)) (with-test (t1) (is nil)))) .. T1 .. ⊠ (IS NIL) .. × T1 ⊠1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T1)) EXPECTED-FAILURE 0.004s ⊠1> ``` - [macro] WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED (&OPTIONAL (RESULT-EXPECTED-TYPE T) (VERDICT-EXPECTED-TYPE ''SUCCESS)) &BODY BODY A convenience macro on top of WITH-EXPECTED-OUTCOME, WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED expects VERDICTs to have VERDICT-EXPECTED-TYPE and RESULTs to have RESULT-EXPECTED-TYPE. A simple `(WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED () ...)` makes all RESULT `SUCCESS`es and FAILUREs EXPECTED. `(WITH-FAILURE-EXPECTED ('FAILURE) ..)` expects FAILUREs only, and any `SUCCESS`es will be UNEXPECTED. - [macro] WITH-SKIP (&OPTIONAL (SKIP T)) &BODY BODY WITH-SKIP skips checks and trials. It forces an immediate SKIP-TRIAL whenever a trial is started (which turns into a VERDICT-SKIP) and makes checks (without intervening trials, of course) evaluate normally but signal RESULT-SKIP. SKIP is NIL cancels the effect of any enclosing WITH-SKIP with SKIP true. #### Outcome Restarts - [function] FORCE-EXPECTED-SUCCESS &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the type of the OUTCOME being signalled to EXPECTED and SUCCESS. If the original condition is a RESULT, then this will be EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS, if it is a VERDICT, then EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS. - [function] FORCE-UNEXPECTED-SUCCESS &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the type of OUTCOME being signalled to UNEXPECTED and SUCCESS. - [function] FORCE-EXPECTED-FAILURE &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the type of OUTCOME being signalled to EXPECTED and FAILURE. - [function] FORCE-UNEXPECTED-FAILURE &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the type of OUTCOME being signalled to UNEXPECTED and FAILURE. #### Checks Checks are like CL:ASSERTs, they check whether some condition holds and signal an OUTCOME. The outcome signalled for checks is a subclass of RESULT. Take, for example, `(IS (= X 5))`. Depending on whether `X` is indeed 5, some kind of RESULT SUCCESS or FAILURE will be signalled. WITH-EXPECTED-OUTCOME determines whether it's EXPECTED or UNEXPECTED, and we have one of EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS, EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE to signal. Furthermore, if WITH-SKIP is in effect, then RESULT-SKIP is signalled. The result is signalled with `#'SIGNAL` if it is a PASS, else it's signalled with `#'ERROR`. This distinction matters only if the event is not handled, which is never the case in a TRIAL. Standalone checks though - those that are not enclosed by a trial - invoke the debugger on RESULTs which are not of type PASS. The signalled RESULT is not final until RECORD-EVENT is invoked on it, and it can be changed with the @TRY/OUTCOME-RESTARTS and the @TRY/CHECK-RESTARTS. - [condition] RESULT LEAF OUTCOME - [condition] EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS EXPECTED RESULT SUCCESS - [condition] UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS UNEXPECTED RESULT SUCCESS - [condition] EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE EXPECTED RESULT FAILURE - [condition] UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE UNEXPECTED RESULT FAILURE - [condition] RESULT-SKIP RESULT SKIP - [condition] RESULT-ABORT* RESULT ABORT\* DISMISSAL ##### Check Restarts - [function] ABORT-CHECK &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the OUTCOME of the check being signalled to `RESULT-ABORT*`. `RESULT-ABORT*`, being `(NOT PASS)`, will cause the check to return NIL if RECORD-EVENT is invoked on it. - [function] SKIP-CHECK &OPTIONAL CONDITION Change the OUTCOME of the check being signalled to RESULT-SKIP. RESULT-SKIP, being a PASS, will cause the check to return T if CONTINUE or RECORD-EVENT is invoked on it. - [function] RETRY-CHECK &OPTIONAL CONDITION Initiate a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT to go reevaluate the forms wrapped by the check without signalling an OUTCOME. #### Trials - [type] TRIAL Trials are records of calls to tests (see @TRY/COUNT, @TRY/COLLECT). Their behaviour as @FUNCALLABLE-INSTANCEs is explained in @TRY/RERUN. There are three ways to acquire a TRIAL object: by calling CURRENT-TRIAL, through the lexical binding of the symbol that names the test or through the return value of a test: ```common-lisp (deftest xxx () (prin1 xxx)) (xxx) .. #<TRIAL (XXX) RUNNING> ==> #<TRIAL (XXX) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s> ``` WITH-TRIAL can also provide access to its TRIAL: ```common-lisp (with-test (t0) (prin1 t0)) .. #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T0)) RUNNING> ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T0)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s> ``` TRIALs are not to be instantiated by client code. - [function] CURRENT-TRIAL TRIALs, like the calls to tests they stand for, nest. CURRENT-TRIAL returns the innermost trial. If there is no currently running test, then an error is signalled. The returned trial is RUNNINGP. ##### Trial Events - [condition] TRIAL-EVENT EVENT A TRIAL-EVENT is either a TRIAL-START or a VERDICT. - [reader] TRIAL TRIAL-EVENT (:TRIAL) - [condition] TRIAL-START TRIAL-EVENT TRIAL-START is signalled when a test function (see @TRY/TESTS) is entered and a TRIAL is started, it is already the CURRENT-TRIAL, and the @TRY/TRIAL-RESTARTS are available. It is also signalled when a trial is retried: ```common-lisp (let ((*print* nil) (n 0)) (with-test () (handler-bind ((trial-start (lambda (c) (format t "TRIAL-START for ~S retry#~S~%" (test-name (trial c)) (n-retries (trial c)))))) (with-test (this) (incf n) (when (< n 3) (retry-trial)))))) .. TRIAL-START for THIS retry#0 .. TRIAL-START for THIS retry#1 .. TRIAL-START for THIS retry#2 .. ``` The matching of TRIAL-START events is less straightforward than that of other EVENTs. - When a TRIAL-START event matches the `COLLECT` type (see @TRY/COLLECT), its TRIAL is collected. - Similarly, when a TRIAL-START matches the PRINT type (see @TRY/PRINT), it is printed immediately, and its trial's VERDICT will be printed too regardless of whether it matches PRINT. If TRIAL-START does not match PRINT, it may still be printed if for example *PRINT-PARENT* requires it. - When a TRIAL-START matches the `RERUN` type (see @TRY/RERUN), its TRIAL may be rerun. - Also, see WITH-SKIP. - [condition] VERDICT TRIAL-EVENT OUTCOME A VERDICT is the OUTCOME of a TRIAL. It is one of `{EXPECTED,UNEXPECTED}-VERDICT-{SUCCESS,FAILURE}`, VERDICT-SKIP and VERDICT-ABORT\*. Regarding how the verdict type is determined, see @TRY/TRIAL-VERDICTS. Verdicts are signalled while their TRIAL is still the CURRENT-TRIAL, and @TRY/TRIAL-RESTARTS are still available. ```common-lisp (try (lambda () (handler-bind (((and verdict failure) #'retry-trial)) (with-test (this) (is (zerop (random 2))))))) .. (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {53038ADB}>) .. THIS .. ⊠ (IS (ZEROP #1=(RANDOM 2))) .. where .. #1# = 1 .. THIS retry #1 .. ⋅ (IS (ZEROP (RANDOM 2))) .. ⋅ THIS ⋅1 .. ⋅ (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {53038ADB}>) ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {53038ADB}>) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` - [condition] EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS EXPECTED VERDICT SUCCESS - [condition] UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS UNEXPECTED VERDICT SUCCESS - [condition] EXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE EXPECTED VERDICT FAILURE - [condition] UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE UNEXPECTED VERDICT FAILURE - [condition] VERDICT-SKIP VERDICT SKIP - [condition] VERDICT-ABORT* VERDICT ABORT\* DISMISSAL ##### Trial Verdicts When a trial finished, a VERDICT is signalled. The verdict's type is determined as follows. - It is a VERDICT-SKIP if - SKIP-TRIAL was called on the trial, or - ABORT-TRIAL, SKIP-TRIAL, or RETRY-TRIAL was called on an enclosing trial, and - these were not overruled by a later ABORT-TRIAL or RETRY-TRIAL on the trial. - It is a VERDICT-ABORT\* if ABORT-TRIAL was called on the trial, and it wasn't overruled by a later SKIP-TRIAL or RETRY-TRIAL. - If all children (including those not collected in CHILDREN) of the trial PASS, then the verdict will be a SUCCESS, else it will be a FAILURE. - Subject to the WITH-EXPECTED-OUTCOME in effect, `{EXPECTED,UNEXPECTED}-VERDICT-{SUCCESS,FAILURE}` is the type of the verdict which will be signalled. The verdict of this type is signalled, but its type can be changed by the @TRY/OUTCOME-RESTARTS or the @TRY/TRIAL-RESTARTS before RECORD-EVENT is invoked on it. - [reader] VERDICT TRIAL (= NIL) The VERDICT EVENT signalled when this TRIAL finished or NIL if it has not finished yet. - [function] RUNNINGP TRIAL See if the function call associated with TRIAL has not returned yet. Trials that are not running have a VERDICT and are said to be finished. - [function] PASSEDP TRIAL See if TRIAL has finished and its VERDICT is a PASS. - [function] FAILEDP TRIAL See if TRIAL has finished and its VERDICT is a FAIL. ##### Trial Restarts There are three restarts available for manipulating running trials: ABORT-TRIAL, SKIP-TRIAL, and RETRY-TRIAL. They may be invoked programatically or from the debugger. ABORT-TRIAL is also invoked by TRY when encountering UNHANDLED-ERROR. The functions below invoke one of these restarts associated with a TRIAL. It is an error to call them on trials that are not RUNNINGP, but they may be called on trials other than the CURRENT-TRIAL. In that case, any intervening trials are skipped. ```common-lisp ;; Skipped trials are marked with '-' in the output. (with-test (outer) (with-test (inner) (is t) (skip-trial nil outer))) .. OUTER .. INNER .. ⋅ (IS T) .. - INNER ⋅1 .. - OUTER ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (OUTER)) SKIP 0.000s ⋅1> ``` Furthermore, all three restarts initiate a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT to return from the trial. If during the unwinding of the stack, the non-local-exit is cancelled (see @CANCELLED-NLX), the appropriate restart will be invoked upon returning from the trial. In the following example, the non-local exit from a skip is cancelled by a THROW. ```common-lisp (with-test (some-test) (catch 'foo (unwind-protect (skip-trial) (throw 'foo nil))) (is t :msg "check after skip")) .. SOME-TEST .. ⋅ check after skip .. - SOME-TEST ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (SOME-TEST)) SKIP 0.000s ⋅1> ``` In the next example, the non-local exit from a skip is cancelled by an ERROR, which triggers an ABORT-TRIAL. ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil) (*describe* nil)) (with-test (foo) (unwind-protect (skip-trial) (error "xxx")))) .. FOO .. ⊟ "xxx" (SIMPLE-ERROR) .. ⊟ FOO ⊟1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (FOO)) ABORT* 0.000s ⊟1> ``` All three restarts may be invoked on any EVENT, including the trial's own TRIAL-START and VERDICT. If their CONDITION argument is an EVENT (RETRY-TRIAL has a special case here), they also record it (as in RECORD-EVENT) to ensure that when they handle an EVENT in the debugger or programatically that event is not dropped. - [function] ABORT-TRIAL &OPTIONAL CONDITION (TRIAL (CURRENT-TRIAL)) Invoke the ABORT-TRIAL restart of a RUNNINGP TRIAL. When CONDITION is a VERDICT for TRIAL, ABORT-TRIAL signals a new verdict of type VERDICT-ABORT*. This behavior is similar to that of ABORT-CHECK. Else, the ABORT-TRIAL restart may record CONDITION, then it initiates a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT to return from the test function with VERDICT-ABORT*. If during the unwinding SKIP-TRIAL or RETRY-TRIAL is called, then the abort is cancelled. Since ABORT\* is an UNEXPECTED EVENT, ABORT-TRIAL is rarely used programatically. Signalling any error in a trial that's not caught before the trial's handler catches it will get turned into an UNHANDLED-ERROR, and TRY will invoke ABORT-TRIAL with it. Thus, instead of invoking ABORT-TRIAL directly, signalling an error will often suffice. - [function] SKIP-TRIAL &OPTIONAL CONDITION (TRIAL (CURRENT-TRIAL)) Invoke the SKIP-TRIAL restart of a RUNNINGP TRIAL. When CONDITION is a VERDICT for TRIAL, SKIP-TRIAL signals a new verdict of type VERDICT-SKIP. This behavior is similar to that of SKIP-CHECK. Else, the SKIP-TRIAL restart may record CONDITION, then it initiates a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT to return from the test function with VERDICT-SKIP. If during the unwinding ABORT-TRIAL or RETRY-TRIAL is called, then the skip is cancelled. ```common-lisp (with-test (skipped) (handler-bind ((unexpected-result-failure #'skip-trial)) (is nil))) .. SKIPPED .. ⊠ (IS NIL) .. - SKIPPED ⊠1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (SKIPPED)) SKIP 0.000s ⊠1> ``` Invoking SKIP-TRIAL on the TRIAL's own TRIAL-START skips the trial being started. ```common-lisp (let ((*print* '(or outcome leaf))) (with-test (parent) (handler-bind ((trial-start #'skip-trial)) (with-test (child) (is nil))))) .. PARENT .. - CHILD .. ⋅ PARENT .. ``` - [function] RETRY-TRIAL &OPTIONAL CONDITION (TRIAL (CURRENT-TRIAL)) Invoke the RETRY-TRIAL restart of RUNNINGP TRIAL. The RETRY-TRIAL restart may record CONDITION, then it initiates a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT to go back to the beginning of the test function. If the non-local exit completes, then - (N-RETRIES TRIAL) is incremented, - collected results and trials are cleared (see @TRY/COLLECT), - counts are zeroed (see @TRY/COUNT), and - TRIAL-START is signalled again. If during the unwinding ABORT-TRIAL or SKIP-TRIAL is called, then the retry is cancelled. CONDITION (which may be NIL) is recorded if it is an EVENT but not the VERDICT of TRIAL, and the RECORD-EVENT restart is available. - [reader] N-RETRIES TRIAL (:N-RETRIES = 0) The number of times this TRIAL has been retried. See RETRY-TRIAL. ### Errors - [condition] ERROR* ABORT\* TRIAL-EVENT LEAF Either UNHANDLED-ERROR or NLX, ERROR\* causes or represents abnormal termination of a TRIAL. ABORT-TRIAL can be called with ERROR\*s, but there is little need for explicitly doing so as RECORD-EVENT, which TRY invokes, takes care of this. - [reader] TEST-NAME ERROR\* (:TEST-NAME) - [condition] UNHANDLED-ERROR ERROR\* Signalled when an CL:ERROR condition reaches the handlers set up DEFTEST or WITH-TEST, or when their *DEBUGGER-HOOK* is invoked with a condition that's not an EVENT. - [reader] NESTED-CONDITION UNHANDLED-ERROR (:CONDITION = 'NIL) - [reader] BACKTRACE-OF UNHANDLED-ERROR (:BACKTRACE = 'NIL) - [reader] DEBUGGER-INVOKED-P UNHANDLED-ERROR (:DEBUGGER-INVOKED-P = 'NIL) - [variable] *GATHER-BACKTRACE* T Capturing the backtrace can be expensive. *GATHER-BACKTRACE* controls whether UNHANDLED-ERRORs shall have their BACKTRACE-OF populated. - [condition] NLX ERROR\* Representing a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT of unknown origin, this is signalled if a TRIAL does not return normally although it should have because it was not dismissed (see DISMISSAL, SKIP-TRIAL, ABORT-TRIAL). In this case, there is no CL:ERROR associated with the event. ### Categories Categories determine how event types are printed and events of what types are counted together. The default value of *CATEGORIES* is ``` ((abort* :marker "⊟") (unexpected-failure :marker "⊠") (unexpected-success :marker "⊡") (skip :marker "-") (expected-failure :marker "×") (expected-success :marker "⋅")) ``` which says that all concrete EVENTs that are of type ABORT\* (i.e. `RESULT-ABORT*`, `VERDICT-ABORT*`, UNHANDLED-ERROR, and NLX) are to be marked with `"⊟"` when printed (see @TRY/PRINT). Also, the six types define six counters for @TRY/COUNT. Note that UNEXPECTED events have the same marker but squared as their EXPECTED counterpart. - [variable] *CATEGORIES* "- see above -" A list of of elements like `(TYPE &KEY MARKER)`. When @TRY/PRINT, @TRY/CONCRETE-EVENTS are printed with the marker of the first matching type. When @TRY/COUNT, the counts associated with all matching types are incremented. - [function] FANCY-STD-CATEGORIES Returns the default value of *CATEGORIES* (see @TRY/CATEGORIES), which contains some fancy Unicode characters. - [function] ASCII-STD-CATEGORIES Returns a value suitable for *CATEGORIES*, which uses only ASCII characters for the markers. ``` '((abort* :marker "!") (unexpected-failure :marker "F") (unexpected-success :marker ":") (skip :marker "-") (expected-failure :marker "f") (expected-success :marker ".")) ``` ## The IS Macro IS is the most fundamental one among @TRY/CHECKS, on which all the others are built, and it is a replacement for CL:ASSERT that can capture values of subforms to provide context to failures: ```common-lisp (is (= (1+ 5) 0)) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (= #1=(1+ 5) 0)) .. where .. #1# = 6 ``` IS automatically captures values of arguments to functions like `1+` in the above example. Values of other interesting subforms can be explicitly requested to be captured. IS supports capturing multiple values and can be taught how to deal with macros. The combination of these features allows MATCH-VALUES to be implementable as tiny extension: ```common-lisp (is (match-values (values (1+ 5) "sdf") (= * 0) (string= * "sdf"))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS .. (MATCH-VALUES #1=(VALUES (1+ 5) #2="sdf") .. (= * 0) .. (STRING= * "sdf"))) .. where .. #1# == 6 .. #2# ``` IS is flexible enough that all other checks (SIGNALS, SIGNALS-NOT, INVOKES-DEBUGGER, INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT, FAILS, and IN-TIME are built on top of it. - [macro] IS FORM &KEY MSG CTX (CAPTURE T) (PRINT-CAPTURES T) (RETRY T) Evaluate FORM and signal a RESULT SUCCESS if its first return value is not NIL, else signal a RESULT FAILURE (see @TRY/OUTCOMES). IS returns normally if - the RECORD-EVENT restart is invoked (available when running in a trial), or - the CONTINUE restart is invoked (available when not running in a trial), or - the signalled RESULT condition is not handled (possible only when not running in a trial, and the result is a PASS). The return value of IS is T if the last condition signalled is a SUCCESS, and NIL otherwise. MSG and CTX are @TRY/FORMAT-SPECIFIER-FORMS. MSG prints a description of the check being made, which is by default the whole IS form. Due to how conditions are printed, MSG says what the desired outcome is, and CTX provides information about the evaluation. ```common-lisp (is (equal (prin1-to-string 'hello) "hello") :msg "Symbols are replacements for strings." :ctx ("*PACKAGE* is ~S and *PRINT-CASE* is ~S~%" *package* *print-case*)) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. Symbols are replacements for strings. .. where .. (PRIN1-TO-STRING 'HELLO) = "HELLO" .. *PACKAGE* is #<PACKAGE "TRY"> and *PRINT-CASE* is :UPCASE .. ``` If CAPTURE is true, the value(s) of some subforms of FORM may be automatically recorded in the condition and also made available for CTX via *IS-CAPTURES*. See @TRY/CAPTURES for more. If PRINT-CAPTURES is true, the captures made are printed when the RESULT condition is displayed in the debugger or `DESCRIBE`d (see @TRY/PRINT). This is the `where (PRIN1-TO-STRING 'HELLO) = "HELLO"` part above. If PRINT-CAPTURES is NIL, the captures are still available in *IS-CAPTURES* for writing custom CTX messages. If RETRY is true, then the RETRY-CHECK restart evaluates FORM again and signals a new RESULT. If RETRY is NIL, then the RETRY-CHECK restart returns :RETRY, which allows complex checks such as SIGNALS to implement their own retry mechanism. - [variable] *IS-FORM* IS binds this to its FORM argument for CTX and MSG. - [variable] *IS-CAPTURES* Captures made during an IS evaluation are made available for CTX via *IS-CAPTURES*. ### Format Specifier Forms A format specifier form is a Lisp form, typically an argument to macro, standing for the FORMAT-CONTROL and FORMAT-ARGS arguments to the FORMAT function. It may be a constant string: ```common-lisp (is nil :msg "FORMAT-CONTROL~%with no args.") .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. FORMAT-CONTROL .. with no args. ``` It may be a list whose first element is a constant string, and the rest are the format arguments to be evaluated: ```common-lisp (is nil :msg ("Implicit LIST ~A." "form")) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. Implicit LIST form. ``` Or it may be a form that evaluates to a list like `(FORMAT-CONTROL &REST FORMAT-ARGS)`: ```common-lisp (is nil :msg (list "Full ~A." "form")) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. Full form. ``` Finally, it may evaluate to NIL, in which case some context specific default is implied. - [function] CANONICALIZE-FORMAT-SPECIFIER-FORM FORM Ensure that the format specifier form FORM is in its full form. ### Captures During the evaluation of the FORM argument of IS, evaluation of any form (e.g. a subform of FORM) may be recorded, which are called captures. #### Automatic Captures IS automatically captures some subforms of FORM that are likely to be informative. In particular, if FORM is a function call, then non-constant arguments are automatically captured: ```common-lisp (is (= 3 (1+ 2) (- 4 3))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (= 3 #1=(1+ 2) #2=(- 4 3))) .. where .. #1# = 3 .. #2# = 1 ``` By default, automatic captures are not made for subforms deeper in FORM, except for when FORM is a call to NULL, ENDP and NOT: ```common-lisp (is (null (find (1+ 1) '(1 2 3)))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (NULL #1=(FIND #2=(1+ 1) '(1 2 3)))) .. where .. #2# = 2 .. #1# = 2 ``` ```common-lisp (is (endp (member (1+ 1) '(1 2 3)))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (ENDP #1=(MEMBER #2=(1+ 1) '(1 2 3)))) .. where .. #2# = 2 .. #1# = (2 3) ``` Note that the argument of NOT is not captured as it is assumed to be NIL or T. If that's not true, use NULL. ```common-lisp (is (not (equal (1+ 5) 6))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (NOT (EQUAL #1=(1+ 5) 6))) .. where .. #1# = 6 ``` Other automatic captures are discussed with the relevant functionality such as MATCH-VALUES. ##### Writing Automatic Capture Rules - [class] SUB STRUCTURE-OBJECT A SUB (short for substitution) says that in the original form IS is checking, a SUBFORM was substituted (by SUBSTITUTE-IS-FORM) with VAR (if VALUESP is NIL) or with (VALUES-LIST VAR) if VALUESP is true. Conversely, VAR is to be bound to the evaluated NEW-FORM if VALUESP is NIL, and to (MULTIPLE-VALUE-LIST FORM) if VALUESP. NEW-FORM is often `EQ` to SUBFORM, but it may be different, which is the case when further substitutions are made within a substitution. - [function] MAKE-SUB VAR SUBFORM NEW-FORM VALUESP - [structure-accessor] SUB-VAR - [structure-accessor] SUB-SUBFORM - [structure-accessor] SUB-NEW-FORM - [structure-accessor] SUB-VALUESP - [generic-function] SUBSTITUTE-IS-LIST-FORM FIRST FORM ENV In the list FORM, whose CAR is FIRST, substitute subexpressions of interest with a GENSYM and return the new form. As the second value, return a list of SUBs. For example, consider `(IS (FIND (FOO) LIST))`. When SUBSTITUTE-IS-LIST-FORM is invoked on `(FIND (FOO) LIST)`, it substitutes each argument of FIND with a variable, returning the new form `(FIND TEMP1 TEMP2)` and the list of two substitutions `((TEMP2 (FOO) (FOO) NIL) (TEMP3 LIST LIST NIL))`. This allows the original form to be rewritten as ``` (let* ((temp1 (foo)) (temp2 list)) (find temp1 temp2)) ``` TEMP1 and TEMP2 may then be reported in the OUTCOME condition signalled by IS like this: The following check failed: (is (find #1=(foo) #2=list)) where #1# = <return-value-of-foo> #2# = <value-of-variable-list> #### Explicit Captures In addition to automatic captures, which are prescribed by rewriting rules (see @TRY/WRITING-AUTOMATIC-CAPTURE-RULES), explicit, ad-hoc captures can also be made. ```common-lisp (is (let ((x 1)) (= (capture x) 2))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS .. (LET ((X 1)) .. (= (CAPTURE X) 2))) .. where .. X = 1 ``` If CAPTURE showing up in the form that IS prints is undesirable, then `%` may be used instead: ```common-lisp (is (let ((x 1)) (= (% x) 2))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS .. (LET ((X 1)) .. (= X 2))) .. where .. X = 1 ``` Multiple values may be captured with CAPTURE-VALUES and its secretive counterpart `%%`: ```common-lisp (is (= (%% (values 1 2)) 2)) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (= #1=(VALUES 1 2) 2)) .. where .. #1# == 1 .. 2 ``` where printing `==` instead of = indicates that this is a multiple value capture. - [macro] CAPTURE FORM Evaluate FORM, record its primary return value if within the dynamic extent of an IS evaluation, and finally return that value. If CAPTURE is used within the lexical scope of IS, then CAPTURE itself will show up in the form that the default MSG prints. Thus it is recommended to use the equivalent MACROLET `%` in the lexical scope as `%` is removed before printing. - [macro] CAPTURE-VALUES FORM Like CAPTURE-VALUES, but record and return all values returned by FORM. It is recommended to use the equivalent MACROLET `%%` in the lexical scope as `%%` is removed before printing. - [macrolet] % FORM An alias for CAPTURE in the lexical scope of IS. Removed from the IS form when printed. - [macrolet] %% FORM An alias for CAPTURE-VALUES in the lexical scope of IS. Removed from the IS form when printed. ## Check Library In the following, various checks built on top of IS are described. Many of them share a number of arguments, which are described here. - ON-RETURN is a boolean that determines whether the check in a macro that wraps BODY is made when BODY returns normally. - ON-NLX is a boolean that determines whether the check in a macro that wraps BODY is made when BODY performs a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT. - MSG and CTX are @TRY/FORMAT-SPECIFIER-FORMS as in IS. - NAME may be provided so that it is printed (with PRIN1) instead of BODY in MSG. ### Checking Conditions The macros SIGNALS, SIGNALS-NOT, INVOKES-DEBUGGER, and INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT all check whether a condition of a given type, possibly also matching a predicate, was signalled. In addition to those already described in @TRY/CHECK-LIBRARY, these macros share a number of arguments. Matching conditions are those that are of type CONDITION-TYPE (not evaluated) and satisfy the predicate PRED. When PRED is NIL, it always matches. When it is a string, then it matches if it is a substring of the printed representation of the condition being handled (by PRINC under WITH-STANDARD-IO-SYNTAX). When it is a function, it matches if it returns true when called with the condition as its argument. The check is performed in the cleanup form of an UNWIND-PROTECT around BODY. HANDLER is called when a matching condition is found. It can be a function, T, or NIL. When it is a function, it is called from the condition handler (SIGNALS and SIGNALS-NOT) or the debugger hook (invokes-debugger and INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT) with the matching condition. HANDLER may perform a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT. When HANDLER is T, the matching condition is handled by performing a non-local exit to just outside BODY. If the exit completes, BODY is treated as if it had returned normally, and ON-RETURN is consulted. When HANDLER is NIL, no addition action is performed when a matching condition is found. The default CTX describes the result of the matching process in terms of *CONDITION-MATCHED-P* and *BEST-MATCHING-CONDITION*. - [variable] *CONDITION-MATCHED-P* When a check described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS signals its OUTCOME, this variable is bound to a boolean value to indicate whether a condition that matched CONDITION-TYPE and PRED was found. - [variable] *BEST-MATCHING-CONDITION* Bound when a check described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS signals its OUTCOME. If *CONDITION-MATCHED-P*, then it is the most recent condition that matched both CONDITION-TYPE and PRED. Else, it is the most recent condition that matched CONDITION-TYPE or NIL if no such conditions were detected. - [macro] SIGNALS (CONDITION-TYPE &KEY PRED (HANDLER T) (ON-RETURN T) (ON-NLX T) NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY signals a CONDITION of CONDITION-TYPE (not evaluated) that matches PRED. To detect matching conditions, SIGNALS sets up a HANDLER-BIND. Thus it can only see what BODY does not handle. The arguments are described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS. ```common-lisp (signals (error) (error "xxx")) => NIL ``` The following example shows a failure where CONDITION-TYPE matches but PRED does not. ```common-lisp (signals (error :pred "non-matching") (error "xxx")) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (ERROR "xxx") signals a condition of type ERROR that matches .. "non-matching". .. The predicate did not match "xxx". ``` - [macro] SIGNALS-NOT (CONDITION-TYPE &KEY PRED (HANDLER T) (ON-RETURN T) (ON-NLX T) NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY does not signal a CONDITION of CONDITION-TYPE (not evaluated) that matches PRED. To detect matching conditions, SIGNALS-NOT sets up a HANDLER-BIND. Thus it can only see what BODY does not handle. The arguments are described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS. - [macro] INVOKES-DEBUGGER (CONDITION-TYPE &KEY PRED (HANDLER T) (ON-RETURN T) (ON-NLX T) NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY enters the debugger with a CONDITION of CONDITION-TYPE (not evaluated) that matches PRED. To detect matching conditions, INVOKES-DEBUGGER sets up a *DEBUGGER-HOOK*. Thus if *DEBUGGER-HOOK* is changed by BODY, it may not detect the condition. The arguments are described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS. Note that in a trial (see CURRENT-TRIAL), all ERRORs are handled, and a *DEBUGGER-HOOK* is set up (see UNHANDLED-ERROR). Thus invoking debugger would normally cause the trial to abort. ```common-lisp (invokes-debugger (error :pred "xxx") (handler-bind ((error #'invoke-debugger)) (error "xxx"))) => NIL ``` - [macro] INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT (CONDITION-TYPE &KEY PRED (HANDLER T) (ON-RETURN T) (ON-NLX T) NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY does not enter the debugger with a CONDITION of CONDITION-TYPE (not evaluated) that matches PRED. To detect matching conditions, INVOKES-DEBUGGER-NOT sets up a *DEBUGGER-HOOK*. Thus if *DEBUGGER-HOOK* is changed by BODY, it may not detect the condition. The arguments are described in @TRY/CHECKING-CONDITIONS. ### Miscellaneous Checks - [macro] FAILS (&KEY NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY performs a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT but do not cancel it (see @CANCELLED-NLX). See @TRY/CHECK-LIBRARY for the descriptions of the other arguments. In the following example, FAILS signals a SUCCESS. ```common-lisp (catch 'foo (fails () (throw 'foo 7))) => 7 ``` Next, FAILS signals an UNEXPECTED-FAILURE because BODY returns normally. ```common-lisp (fails () (print 'hey)) .. .. HEY .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (PRINT 'HEY) does not return normally. ``` Note that there is no `FAILS-NOT` as WITH-TEST fills that role. - [macro] IN-TIME (SECONDS &KEY (ON-RETURN T) (ON-NLX T) NAME MSG CTX) &BODY BODY Check that BODY finishes in SECONDS. See @TRY/CHECK-LIBRARY for the descriptions of the other arguments. ``` (in-time (1) (sleep 2)) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (SLEEP 2) finishes within 1s. .. Took 2.000s. ``` RETRY-CHECK restarts timing. - [variable] *IN-TIME-ELAPSED-SECONDS* Bound to the number of seconds passed during the evaluation of BODY when IN-TIME signals its OUTCOME. ### Check Utilities These utilities are not checks (which signal OUTCOMEs) but simple functions and macros that may be useful for writing IS checks. - [macro] ON-VALUES FORM &BODY BODY ON-VALUES evaluates FORM and transforms its return values one by one based on forms in BODY. The Nth value is replaced by the return value of the Nth form of BODY evaluated with `*` bound to the Nth value. If the number of values exceeds the number of transformation forms in BODY then the excess values are returned as is. ```common-lisp (on-values (values 1 "abc" 7) (1+ *) (length *)) => 2 => 3 => 7 ``` If the number of values is less than the number of transformation forms, then in later transformation forms `*` is bound to NIL. ```common-lisp (on-values (values) * *) => NIL => NIL ``` The first forms in BODY may be options. Options must precede transformation forms. With :TRUNCATE T, the excess values are discarded. ```common-lisp (on-values (values 1 "abc" 7) (:truncate t) (1+ *) (length *)) => 2 => 3 ``` The :ON-LENGTH-MISMATCH option may be NIL or a function of a single argument. If the number of values and the number of transformation forms is different, then this function is called to transform the list of values. :TRUNCATE is handled before :ON-LENGTH-MISMATCH. ```common-lisp (on-values 1 (:on-length-mismatch (lambda (values) (if (= (length values) 1) (append values '("abc")) values))) (1+ *) *) => 2 => "abc" ``` If the same option is specified multiple times, only the first one is in effect. - [macro] MATCH-VALUES FORM &BODY BODY MATCH-VALUES returns true iff all return values of FORM satisfy the predicates given by BODY, which are described in ON-VALUES. The :TRUNCATE option of ON-VALUES is supported, but :ON-LENGTH-MISMATCH always returns NIL. ```common-lisp ;; no values (is (match-values (values))) ;; single value success (is (match-values 1 (= * 1))) ;; success with different types (is (match-values (values 1 "sdf") (= * 1) (string= * "sdf"))) ;; too few values (is (not (match-values 1 (= * 1) (string= * "sdf")))) ;; too many values (is (not (match-values (values 1 "sdf" 3) (= * 1) (string= * "sdf")))) ;; too many values, but truncated (is (match-values (values 1 "sdf" 3) (:truncate t) (= * 1) (string= * "sdf"))) ``` - [function] MISMATCH% SEQUENCE1 SEQUENCE2 &KEY FROM-END (TEST #'EQL) (START1 0) END1 (START2 0) END2 KEY MAX-PREFIX-LENGTH MAX-SUFFIX-LENGTH Like CL:MISMATCH but CAPTUREs and returns the common prefix and the mismatched suffixes. The `TEST-NOT` argument is deprecated by the CLHS and is not supported. In addition, if MAX-PREFIX-LENGTH and MAX-SUFFIX-LENGTH are non-`NIL`, they must be non-negative integers, and they limit the number of elements in the prefix and the suffixes. ```common-lisp (is (null (mismatch% '(1 2 3) '(1 2 4 5)))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (NULL #1=(MISMATCH% '(1 2 3) '(1 2 4 5)))) .. where .. COMMON-PREFIX = (1 2) .. MISMATCHED-SUFFIX-1 = (3) .. MISMATCHED-SUFFIX-2 = (4 5) .. #1# = 2 ``` ```common-lisp (is (null (mismatch% "Hello, World!" "Hello, world!"))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (NULL #1=(MISMATCH% "Hello, World!" "Hello, world!"))) .. where .. COMMON-PREFIX = "Hello, " .. MISMATCHED-SUFFIX-1 = "World!" .. MISMATCHED-SUFFIX-2 = "world!" .. #1# = 7 ``` - [function] DIFFERENT-ELEMENTS SEQUENCE1 SEQUENCE2 &KEY (PRED #'EQL) (MISSING :MISSING) Return the different elements under PRED in the given sequences as a list of `(:INDEX <INDEX> <E1> <E2>)` elements, where `E1` and `E2` are elements of SEQUENCE1 and SEQUENCE2 at `<INDEX>`, respectively, and they may be MISSING if the corresponding sequence is too short. ```common-lisp (is (endp (different-elements '(1 2 3) '(1 b 3 d)))) .. debugger invoked on UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE: .. UNEXPECTED-FAILURE in check: .. (IS (ENDP #1=(DIFFERENT-ELEMENTS '(1 2 3) '(1 B 3 D)))) .. where .. #1# = ((:INDEX 1 2 B) (:INDEX 3 :MISSING D)) ``` - [macro] WITH-SHUFFLING NIL &BODY BODY Execute the forms that make up the list of forms BODY in random order and return NIL. This may be useful to prevent writing tests that accidentally depend on the order in which subtests are called. ```common-lisp (loop repeat 3 do (with-shuffling () (prin1 1) (prin1 2))) .. 122112 => NIL ``` #### Comparing Floats Float comparisons following [https://randomascii.wordpress.com/2012/02/25/comparing-floating-point-numbers-2012-edition/](https://randomascii.wordpress.com/2012/02/25/comparing-floating-point-numbers-2012-edition/). - [function] FLOAT-~= X Y &KEY (MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE \*MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE\*) (MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP \*MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP\*) Return whether two numbers, X and Y, are approximately equal either according to MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE or MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP. If the absolute value of the difference of two floats is not greater than MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE, then they are considered equal. If two floats are of the same sign and the number of representable floats (ULP, unit in the last place) between them is less than MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP, then they are considered equal. If neither X nor Y are floats, then the comparison is done with `=`. If one of them is a DOUBLE-FLOAT, then the other is converted to a double float, and the comparison takes place in double float space. Else, both are converted to SINGLE-FLOAT and the comparison takes place in single float space. - [variable] *MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE* 1.0e-16 The default value of the MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE argument of FLOAT-~=. - [variable] *MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP* 2 The default value of the MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP argument of FLOAT-~=. - [function] FLOAT-~< X Y &KEY (MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE \*MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE\*) (MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP \*MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP\*) Return whether X is approximately less than Y. Equivalent to `<`, but it also allows for approximate equality according to FLOAT-~=. - [function] FLOAT-~> X Y &KEY (MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE \*MAX-DIFF-IN-VALUE\*) (MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP \*MAX-DIFF-IN-ULP\*) Return whether X is approximately greater than Y. Equivalent to `>`, but it also allows for approximate equality according to FLOAT-~=. ## Tests In Try, tests are Lisp functions that record their execution in TRIAL objects. TRIALs are to tests what function call traces are to functions. In more detail, tests - create a TRIAL object and signal a TRIAL-START event upon entry to the function, - signal a VERDICT condition before returning normally or via a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT, - return the TRIAL object as the first value, - return explicitly returned values as the second, third, and so on values. See DEFTEST and WITH-TEST for more precise descriptions. - [macro] DEFTEST NAME LAMBDA-LIST &BODY BODY DEFTEST is a wrapper around DEFUN to define global test functions. See DEFUN for a description of NAME, LAMBDA-LIST, and BODY. The behaviour common with WITH-TEST is described in @TRY/TESTS. ```common-lisp (deftest my-test () (write-string "hey")) => MY-TEST (test-bound-p 'my-test) => T (my-test) .. hey ==> #<TRIAL (MY-TEST) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s> ``` Although the common case is for tests to have no arguments, DEFTEST supports general function lambda lists. Within a global test, - NAME is bound to the TRIAL object - the first return value is the trial - values are not returned implicitly - values returned with an explicit RETURN-FROM are returned as values after the trial ```common-lisp (deftest my-test () (prin1 my-test) (return-from my-test (values 2 3))) (my-test) .. #<TRIAL (MY-TEST) RUNNING> ==> #<TRIAL (MY-TEST) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s> => 2 => 3 ``` - [variable] *RUN-DEFTEST-WHEN* NIL This may be any of :COMPILE-TOPLEVEL, :LOAD-TOPLEVEL, :EXECUTE, or a list thereof. The value of *RUN-DEFTEST-WHEN* determines in what EVAL-WHEN situation to call the test function immediately after it has been defined with DEFTEST. For interactive development, it may be convenient to set it to :EXECUTE and have the test run when the DEFTEST is evaluated (maybe with Slime `C-M-x`, `slime-eval-defun`). Or set it to :COMPILE-TOPLEVEL, and have it rerun on Slime `C-c C-c`, `slime-compile-defun`. If the test has required arguments, an argument list is prompted for and read from *QUERY-IO*. - [function] TEST-BOUND-P SYMBOL See if SYMBOL names a global test (i.e. a test defined with DEFTEST). If since the execution of DEFTEST, the symbol has been uninterned, FMAKUNBOUND, or redefined with DEFUN, then it no longer names a global test. - [macro] WITH-TEST (&OPTIONAL TRIAL-VAR &KEY NAME) &BODY BODY Define a so-called lambda test to group together CHECKs and other tests it executes. WITH-TEST executes BODY in its lexical environment even on a rerun (see @TRY/RERUN). If TRIAL-VAR is a non-`NIL` symbol, bind it to the trial object. NAME may be any type, it is purely for presentation purposes. If NAME is NIL, then it defaults to TRIAL-VAR. To facilitate returning values, a BLOCK is wrapped around BODY. The name of the block is TRIAL-VAR if it is a symbol, else it's NIL. When both TRIAL-VAR and NAME are specified: ```common-lisp (with-test (some-feature :name "obscure feature") (prin1 some-feature) (is t) (return-from some-feature (values 1 2))) .. #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST ("obscure feature")) RUNNING> .. obscure feature .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ obscure feature ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST ("obscure feature")) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.002s ⋅1> => 1 => 2 ``` If only TRIAL-VAR is specified: ```common-lisp (with-test (some-feature) (prin1 some-feature) (is t) (return-from some-feature (values 1 2))) .. #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (SOME-FEATURE)) RUNNING> .. SOME-FEATURE .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ SOME-FEATURE ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (SOME-FEATURE)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> => 1 => 2 ``` If neither is specified: ```common-lisp (with-test () (prin1 (current-trial)) (is t) (return (values 1 2))) .. #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (NIL)) RUNNING> .. NIL .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ NIL ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (NIL)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> => 1 => 2 ``` Finally, using that NAME defaults to TRIAL-VAR and that it is valid to specify non-symbols for TRIAL-VAR, one can also write: ```common-lisp (with-test ("Some feature") (prin1 (current-trial)) (is t) (return (values 1 2))) .. #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST ("Some feature")) RUNNING> .. Some feature .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ Some feature ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST ("Some feature")) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> => 1 => 2 ``` In summary and in contrast to global tests (those defined with DEFTEST), lambda tests - have no arguments, - are defined and called at the same time, - may not bind their trial object to any variable, - may have a BLOCK named NIL, - have a NAME purely for presentation purposes. Lambda tests can be thought of as analogous to `(FUNCALL (LAMBDA () BODY))`. The presence of the LAMBDA is important because it is stored in the TRIAL object to support @TRY/RERUN. - [function] LIST-PACKAGE-TESTS &OPTIONAL (PACKAGE \*PACKAGE\*) List all symbols in PACKAGE that name global tests in the sense of TEST-BOUND-P. - [macro] WITH-TESTS-RUN (TESTS-RUN) &BODY BODY Bind the symbol TESTS-RUN to an empty `EQ` hash table and execute BODY. The has table reflects call counts to global tests. Keys are symbols naming global tests, and the values are the number of times the keys have been called. - [macro] WARN-ON-TESTS-NOT-RUN (&OPTIONAL (PACKAGE \*PACKAGE\*)) &BODY BODY A convenience utility to that records the global tests run by BODY with WITH-TESTS-RUN and, when BODY finishes, signals a warning for each global tests in PACKAGE not run. This is how Try runs its own tests: ``` (defun test () ;; Bind *PACKAGE* so that names of tests printed have package names, ;; and M-. works on them in Slime. (let ((*package* (find-package :common-lisp))) (warn-on-tests-not-run ((find-package :try)) (print (try 'test-all :print 'unexpected :describe 'unexpected))))) ``` ### Calling Test Functions Tests can be run explicitly by invoking the TRY function or implicitly by calling a test function: ```common-lisp (deftest my-test () (is t)) (my-test) .. MY-TEST .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ MY-TEST ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-TEST) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.004s ⋅1> ``` The situation is similar with a WITH-TEST: ```common-lisp (with-test (my-test) (is t)) .. MY-TEST .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ MY-TEST ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (MY-TEST)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` Behind the scenes, the outermost test function calls TRY with ``` (try trial :debug *debug* :collect *collect* :rerun *rerun* :print *print* :describe *describe* :stream *stream* :printer *printer*) ``` TRY then calls the test function belonging to TRIAL. The rest of the behaviour is described in @TRY/EXPLICIT-TRY. - [variable] *DEBUG* (AND UNEXPECTED (NOT NLX) (NOT VERDICT)) The default value makes TRY invoke the debugger on UNHANDLED-ERROR, RESULT-ABORT\*, UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE, and UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS. NLX is excluded because it is caught as the test function is being exited, but by that time the dynamic environment of the actual cause is likely gone. VERDICT is excluded because it is a consequence of its child outcomes. - [variable] *COUNT* LEAF Although the default value of *CATEGORIES* lumps RESULTs and VERDICTs together, with the default of LEAF, VERDICTs are not counted. - [variable] *COLLECT* UNEXPECTED To save memory, only the UNEXPECTED are collected by default. - [variable] *RERUN* UNEXPECTED The default matches that of *COLLECT*. - [variable] *PRINT* LEAF With the default of LEAF combined with the default *PRINT-PARENT* T, only TRIALs with checks or ERROR\* in them are printed. If UNEXPECTED, only the interesting things are printed. - [variable] *DESCRIBE* (OR UNEXPECTED FAILURE) By default, the context (e.g. @TRY/CAPTURES, and the CTX argument of is and other checks) of UNEXPECTED events is described. - [variable] *STREAM* (MAKE-SYNONYM-STREAM '\*DEBUG-IO\*) - [variable] *PRINTER* TREE-PRINTER ### Explicit TRY Instead of invoking the test function directly, tests can also be run by invoking the TRY function. ```common-lisp (deftest my-test () (is t)) (try 'my-test) .. MY-TEST .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ MY-TEST ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (MY-TEST) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` The situation is similar with a WITH-TEST, only that TRY wraps an extra TRIAL around the execution of the LAMBDA to ensure that all EVENTs are signalled within a trial. ``` (try (lambda () (with-test (my-test) (is t)))) .. (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {531FE50B}>) .. MY-TEST .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ MY-TEST ⋅1 .. ⋅ (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {531FE50B}>) ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (TRY #<FUNCTION (LAMBDA ()) {531FE50B}>) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅1> ``` Invoking tests with an explicit TRY is very similar to just calling the test functions directly (see @TRY/IMPLICIT-TRY). The differences are that TRY - can run @TRY/TESTABLES, - has a function argument for each of the *DEBUG*, *COLLECT*, etc variables. Those arguments default to *TRY-DEBUG*, *TRY-COLLECT*, etc, which parallel and default to *DEBUG*, *COLLECT*, etc if set to :UNSPECIFIED. *TRY-DEBUG* is NIL, the rest of them are :UNSPECIFIED. These defaults encourage the use of an explicit TRY call in the non-interactive case and calling the test functions directly in the interactive one, but this is not enforced in any way. - [function] TRY TESTABLE &KEY (DEBUG \*TRY-DEBUG\*) (COUNT \*TRY-COUNT\*) (COLLECT \*TRY-COLLECT\*) (RERUN \*TRY-RERUN\*) (PRINT \*TRY-PRINT\*) (DESCRIBE \*TRY-DESCRIBE\*) (STREAM \*TRY-STREAM\*) (PRINTER \*TRY-PRINTER\*) TRY runs TESTABLE and handles the EVENTs to collect, debug, print the results of checks and trials, and to decide what tests to skip and what to rerun. DEBUG, COUNT, COLLECT, RERUN, PRINT, and DESCRIBE must all be valid specifiers for types that are either NIL (the empty type) or have a non-empty intersection with the type EVENT (e.g. T, OUTCOME, UNEXPECTED, VERDICT). TRY sets up a HANDLER-BIND handler for EVENTs and runs TESTABLE (see @TRY/TESTABLES). When an EVENT is signalled, the handler matches its type to the value of the DEBUG argument (in the sense of `(TYPEP EVENT DEBUG)`). If it matches, then the debugger is invoked with the event. In the debugger, the user has a number of restarts available to change (see @TRY/EVENT-RESTARTS, @TRY/OUTCOME-RESTARTS, @TRY/CHECK-RESTARTS, @TRY/TRIAL-RESTARTS, and SET-TRY-DEBUG. If the debugger is not invoked, TRY invokes the very first restart available, which is always RECORD-EVENT. Recording the event is performed as follows. - Outcome counts are updated (see @TRY/COUNT). - The event is passed to the collector (see @TRY/COLLECT). - The event is passed to the printer (see @TRY/PRINT). - Finally, when rerunning a trial (i.e. when TESTABLE is a trial), on a TRIAL-START event, the trial may be skipped (see @TRY/RERUN). TRY returns the values returned by the outermost trial (see @TRY/TESTS). - [function] SET-TRY-DEBUG DEBUG Invoke the SET-TRY-DEBUG restart to override the DEBUG argument of the currently running TRY. DEBUG must thus be a suitable type. When the SET-TRY-DEBUG restart is invoked interactively, DEBUG is read as a non-evaluated form from *QUERY-IO*. - [variable] *TRY-DEBUG* NIL The default value for TRY's :DEBUG argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *DEBUG* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-COUNT* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :COUNT argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *COUNT* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-COLLECT* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :COLLECT argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *COLLECT* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-RERUN* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :RERUN argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *RERUN* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-PRINT* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :PRINT argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *PRINT* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-DESCRIBE* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :DESCRIBE argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *DESCRIBE* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-STREAM* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :STREAM argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *STREAM* is used instead. - [variable] *TRY-PRINTER* :UNSPECIFIED The default value for TRY's :PRINTER argument. If :UNSPECIFIED, then the value of *PRINTER* is used instead. - [variable] *N-RECENT-TRIALS* 3 See *RECENT-TRIALS*. - [function] RECENT-TRIAL &OPTIONAL (N 0) Returns the `N`th most recent trial or NIL if there are not enough trials recorded. Every TRIAL returned by TRY gets pushed onto a list of trials, but only *N-RECENT-TRIALS* are kept. - [variable] ! NIL The most recent trial. Equivalent to `(RECENT-TRIAL 0)`. - [variable] !! NIL Equivalent to `(RECENT-TRIAL 1)`. - [variable] !!! NIL Equivalent to `(RECENT-TRIAL 2)`. #### Testables Valid first arguments to TRY are called testables. A testable may be: - a @FUNCTION-DESIGNATOR - the name of a global test - the name of a global function - a function object - a trial - a list of testables - a PACKAGE In the function designator cases, TRY calls the designated function. TRIALs, being @FUNCALLABLE-INSTANCEs, designate themselves. If the trial is not RUNNINGP, then it will be rerun (see @TRY/RERUN). Don't invoke TRY with RUNNINGP trials (but see @TRY/IMPLICIT-TRY-IMPLEMENTATION for discussion). When given a list of testables, TRY calls each testable one by one. Finally, a PACKAGE stands for the result of calling LIST-PACKAGE-TESTS on that package. #### Implementation of Implicit TRY What's happening in the implementation is that a test function, when it is called, checks whether it is running under the TRY function. If it isn't, then it invokes TRY with its TRIAL. TRY realizes the trial cannot be rerun yet (see @TRY/RERUN) because it is RUNNINGP, sets up its event handlers for debugging, collecting, printing, and invokes the trial as if it were rerun but without skipping anything based on the RERUN argument. Thus the following are infinite recursions: ``` (with-test (recurse) (try recurse)) (with-test (recurse) (funcall recurse)) ``` ### Printing Events TRY instantiates a printer of the type given by its PRINTER argument. All EVENTs recorded by TRY are sent to this printer. The printer then prints events that match the type given by the PRINT argument of TRY. Events that also match the DESCRIBE argument of TRY are printed with context information (see IS) and backtraces (see UNHANDLED-ERROR). Although the printing is primarily customized with global special variables, changing the value of those variables after the printer object is instantiated by TRY has no effect. This is to ensure consistent output with nested TRY calls of differing printer setups. - [class] TREE-PRINTER TREE-PRINTER prints events in an indented tree-like structure, with each internal node corresponding to a TRIAL. This is the default printer (according to *PRINTER* and *TRY-PRINTER*) and currently the only one. The following example prints all @TRY/CONCRETE-EVENTS. ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil) (*print* '(not trial-start)) (*describe* nil)) (with-test (verdict-abort*) (with-test (expected-verdict-success)) (with-expected-outcome ('failure) (with-test (unexpected-verdict-success))) (handler-bind (((and verdict success) #'force-expected-failure)) (with-test (expected-verdict-failure))) (handler-bind (((and verdict success) #'force-unexpected-failure)) (with-test (unexpected-verdict-failure))) (with-test (verdict-skip) (skip-trial)) (is t :msg "EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS") (with-failure-expected ('failure) (is t :msg "UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS") (is nil :msg "EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE")) (is nil :msg "UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE") (with-skip () (is nil :msg "RESULT-SKIP")) (handler-bind (((and result success) #'abort-check)) (is t :msg "RESULT-ABORT*")) (catch 'foo (with-test (nlx-test) (throw 'foo nil))) (error "UNHANDLED-ERROR"))) .. VERDICT-ABORT* ; TRIAL-START .. ⋅ EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS .. ⊡ UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS .. × EXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE .. ⊠ UNEXPECTED-VERDICT-FAILURE .. - VERDICT-SKIP .. ⋅ EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS .. ⊡ UNEXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS .. × EXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE .. ⊠ UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE .. - RESULT-SKIP .. ⊟ RESULT-ABORT* .. NLX-TEST ; TRIAL-START .. ⊟ non-local exit ; NLX .. ⊟ NLX-TEST ⊟1 ; VERDICT-ABORT* .. ⊟ "UNHANDLED-ERROR" (SIMPLE-ERROR) .. ⊟ VERDICT-ABORT* ⊟3 ⊠1 ⊡1 -1 ×1 ⋅1 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (VERDICT-ABORT*)) ABORT* 0.004s ⊟3 ⊠1 ⊡1 -1 ×1 ⋅1> ``` The `⊟3 ⊠1 ⊡1 -1 ×1 ⋅1` part is the counts for *CATEGORIES* printed with their markers. - [variable] *PRINT-PARENT* T When an EVENT is signalled and its parent TRIAL's type matches *PRINT-PARENT*, the trial is printed as if its TRIAL-START matched the PRINT argument of TRY. ```common-lisp (let ((*print* 'leaf) (*print-parent* t)) (with-test (t0) (is t) (is t))) .. T0 .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ T0 ⋅2 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T0)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅2> ``` ```common-lisp (let ((*print* 'leaf) (*print-parent* nil)) (with-test (t0) (is t) (is t))) .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (T0)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅2> ``` *PRINT-PARENT* NIL combined with printing VERDICTs results in a flat output: ```common-lisp (let ((*print* '(or leaf verdict)) (*print-parent* nil)) (with-test (outer) (with-test (inner) (is t :msg "inner-t")) (is t :msg "outer-t"))) .. ⋅ inner-t .. ⋅ INNER ⋅1 .. ⋅ outer-t .. ⋅ OUTER ⋅2 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (OUTER)) EXPECTED-SUCCESS 0.000s ⋅2> ``` - [variable] *PRINT-INDENTATION* 2 The number of spaces each printed TRIAL increases the indentation of its children. - [variable] *PRINT-DURATION* NIL If true, the number of seconds spent during execution is printed. ```common-lisp (let ((*print-duration* t) (*debug* nil) (*describe* nil)) (with-test (timed) (is (progn (sleep 0.3) t)) (is (progn (sleep 0.2) t)) (error "xxx"))) .. TIMED .. 0.300 ⋅ (IS (PROGN (SLEEP 0.3) T)) .. 0.200 ⋅ (IS (PROGN (SLEEP 0.2) T)) .. ⊟ ""xxx (SIMPLE-ERROR) .. 0.504 ⊟ TIMED ⊟1 ⋅2 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (TIMED)) ABORT* 0.504s ⊟1 ⋅2> ``` Timing is available for all OUTCOMEs (i.e. for @TRY/CHECKS and TRIALs). Checks generally measure the time spent during evaluation the form they are wrapping. Trials measure the time between TRIAL-START and the VERDICT. Timing information is not available for TRIAL-START and ERROR\* events. - [variable] *PRINT-COMPACTLY* NIL EVENTs whose type matches *PRINT-COMPACTLY* are printed less verbosely. LEAF events are printed only with their marker, and VERDICTs of trials without printed child trials are printed with `=> <MARKER>` (see *CATEGORIES*). ```common-lisp (let ((*print-compactly* t) (*debug* nil) (*describe* nil)) (with-test (outer) (loop repeat 10 do (is t)) (with-test (inner) (is t) (is nil) (error "xxx")) (loop repeat 10 do (is t)))) .. OUTER ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ .. INNER ⋅⊠⊟ => ⊟ .. ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅ .. ⊠ OUTER ⊟1 ⊠1 ⋅21 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (OUTER)) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊟1 ⊠1 ⋅21> ``` *PRINT-COMPACTLY* has no effect on events being `DESCRIBE`d. - [variable] *DEFER-DESCRIBE* NIL When an EVENT is to be `DESCRIBE`d and its type matches *DEFER-DESCRIBE*, then instead of printing the often longish context information in the tree of events, it is deferred until after TRY has finished. The following example only prints LEAF events (due to *PRINT* and *PRINT-PARENT*) and in compact form (see *PRINT-COMPACTLY*), deferring description of events matching *DESCRIBE* until the end. ```common-lisp (let ((*print* 'leaf) (*print-parent* nil) (*print-compactly* t) (*defer-describe* t) (*debug* nil)) (with-test (outer) (loop repeat 10 do (is t)) (with-test (inner) (is (= (1+ 5) 7))))) .. ⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅⊠ .. .. ;; UNEXPECTED-RESULT-FAILURE (⊠) in OUTER INNER: .. (IS (= #1=(1+ 5) 7)) .. where .. #1# = 6 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (OUTER)) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊠1 ⋅10> ``` ### Counting Events TRIALs have a counter for each category in *CATEGORIES*. When an EVENT is recorded by TRY and its type matches *COUNT*, the counters of all categories matching the event type are incremented in the CURRENT-TRIAL. When a trial finishes and a VERDICT is recorded, the trial's event counters are added to that of its parent's (if any). The counts are printed with VERDICTs (see @TRY/PRINT). If both *COUNT* and *CATEGORIES* are unchanged from the their default values, then only LEAF events are counted, and we get separate counters for ABORT\*, UNEXPECTED-FAILURE, UNEXPECTED-SUCCESS, SKIP, EXPECTED-FAILURE, and EXPECTED-SUCCESS. ```common-lisp (let ((*debug* nil)) (with-test (outer) (with-test (inner) (is t)) (is t) (is nil))) .. OUTER .. INNER .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⋅ INNER ⋅1 .. ⋅ (IS T) .. ⊠ (IS NIL) .. ⊠ OUTER ⊠1 ⋅2 .. ==> #<TRIAL (WITH-TEST (OUTER)) UNEXPECTED-FAILURE 0.000s ⊠1 ⋅2> ``` As the above example shows, EXPECTED-VERDICT-SUCCESS and EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS are both marked with `"⋅"`, but only EXPECTED-RESULT-SUCCESS is counted due to *COUNT* being LEAF. ### Collecting Events When an EVENT is recorded and the type of the EVENT matches the COLLECT type argument of TRY, then a corresponding object is pushed onto CHILDREN of the CURRENT-TRIAL for subsequent @TRY/RERUN or @TRY/REPLAY. In particular, if the matching event is a LEAF, then the event itself is collected. If the matching event is a TRIAL-EVENT, then its TRIAL is collected. Furthermore, trials which collected anything are always collected by their parent. By default, both implicit and explicit calls to TRY collect the UNEXPECTED (see *COLLECT* and *TRY-COLLECT*), and consequently all the enclosing trials. - [reader] CHILDREN TRIAL (:CHILDREN = NIL) A list of immediate child VERDICTs, RESULTs, and ERROR\*s collected in reverse chronological order (see @TRY/COLLECT). The VERDICT of this TRIAL is not among CHILDREN, but the VERDICTs of child trials' are. ### Rerunning Trials When a TRIAL is `FUNCALL`ed or passed to TRY, the same tests that instantiated TRIAL are executed. - If the trial was created by calling a DEFTEST function, then the test currently associated with that symbol naming the function is called with the arguments of the original function call. If the symbol is no longer FBOUNDP (because it was FMAKUNBOUND) or it no longer names a DEFTEST (it was redefined with DEFUN), then an error is signalled. - If the trial was created by entering a WITH-TEST form, then its body is executed again in the original lexical but the current dynamic environment. Implementationally speaking, WITH-TEST defines a local function of no arguments (likely a closure) that wraps its body, stores the closure in the trial object and calls it on a rerun in a WITH-TEST of the same TRIAL-VAR and same NAME. - If the trial was created by TRY itself to ensure that all events are signalled in a trial (see @TRY/EXPLICIT-TRY), then on a rerun the same TESTABLE is run again. All three possibilities involve entering DEFTEST or WITH-TEST, or invoking TRY: the same cases that we have when calling tests functions (see @TRY/IMPLICIT-TRY). Thus even if a trial is rerun with FUNCALL, execution is guaranteed to happen under an TRY, so we can talk about its RERUN parameter. As the test functions are being rerun, some trials are automatically skipped. When that happens the corresponding function call immediately returns the TRIAL object. A new trial is skipped if - among the collected but not yet rerun trials in the trial being rerun, there is no trial representing the same function call, or - the first such trial does not match the RERUN type argument of TRY in that neither its TRIAL-START, VERDICT events match the type RERUN, nor do any of its collected RESULTs and trials. ### Reprocessing Trials - [function] REPLAY-EVENTS TRIAL &KEY (COLLECT \*TRY-COLLECT\*) (PRINT \*TRY-PRINT\*) (DESCRIBE \*TRY-DESCRIBE\*) (STREAM \*TRY-STREAM\*) (PRINTER \*TRY-PRINTER\*) REPLAY-EVENTS reprocesses the events collected (see @TRY/COLLECT) in TRIAL. It takes the same arguments as TRY except DEBUG, COUNT and RERUN. This is because REPLAY-EVENTS does not run any tests. It simply signals the events collected in TRIAL again to allow further processing. The values of *CATEGORIES* and *COUNT* that were in effect for TRIAL are used, and their current values are ignored to be able to keep consistent counts (see @TRY/COUNT). Suppose we have run a large test using the default `:PRINT 'LEAF` `:COLLECT 'UNEXPECTED` arguments for TRY, and now we have too much output to look at. Instead of searching for the interesting bits in the output, we can replay the events and print only the UNEXPECTED events: ``` (replay-events ! :print 'unexpected) ``` Or we could tell the printer to just print markers for *CATEGORIES* and :DESCRIBE at the end: ``` (let ((*print-parent* nil) (*print-compactly* t) (*defer-describe* t) (*categories* (ascii-std-categories))) (replay-events !)) .. ................F................!..... .. .. ;; UNEXPECTED-FAILURE (F) in SOME-TEST INNER-TEST: .. (IS (= 5 6)) .. debug info .. .. ;; UNHANDLED-ERROR (!) in SOME-TEST: .. "my-msg" (MY-ERR) ``` ## Implementation Notes Try is supported on ABCL, AllegroCL, CLISP, CCL, CMUCL, ECL and SBCL. - Pretty printing is non-existent on CLISP and broken on ABCL. The output may look garbled on them. - Gray streams are broken on ABCL so the output may look even worse [https://abcl.org/trac/ticket/373](https://abcl.org/trac/ticket/373). - ABCL, CMUCL, and ECL have a bug related to losing EQLness of source literals [https://gitlab.com/embeddable-common-lisp/ecl/-/issues/665](https://gitlab.com/embeddable-common-lisp/ecl/-/issues/665). The result is somewhat cosmetic, it may cause multiple captures being made for the same thing. ## Glossary - [glossary-term] function designator This is a term from the Common Lisp ANSI standard. A function designator is a symbol (denoting the function named by that symbol in the global environment), or a function (denoting itself). - [glossary-term] funcallable instance This is a term from the MOP. A funcallable instance is an instance of a class that's a subclass of `MOP:FUNCALLABLE-STANDARD-CLASS`. It is like a normal instance, but it can also be `FUNCALL`ed. - [glossary-term] non-local exit This is a term from the Common Lisp ANSI standard. If a form does not return normally, but control is transferred via `GO`, RETURN, RETURN-FROM or THROW, then it is said to have performed a non-local exit. - [glossary-term] cancelled non-local exit This is a term from the Common Lisp ANSI standard. If during the unwinding of the stack initiated by a @NON-LOCAL-EXIT another nlx is initiated in, and exits from an UNWIND-PROTECT cleanup form, then this second nlx is said to have cancelled the first, and the first nlx will not continue. ```common-lisp (catch 'foo (catch 'bar (unwind-protect (throw 'foo 'foo) (throw 'bar 'bar)))) => BAR ``` * * * ###### \[generated by [MGL-PAX](https://github.com/melisgl/mgl-pax)\]

Dependencies (7)

  • alexandria
  • closer-mop
  • cl-ppcre
  • ieee-floats
  • mgl-pax
  • trivial-gray-streams
  • uiop
  • GitHub
  • Quicklisp